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I I 



ENGLISH HISTORY 



BEADING BOOKS. 



The New Code for 1880 has laid down the principle 
that the Beading Lessons in Schools shall be tnmed to 
acconnt, so. far as may be possible, for children in all the 
Standards. Hitherto the character of these lessons has 
been miscellaneous, and the lessons themselves woxild be 
regarded on the whole as little more 'than exercises 
which,, although- they might excite the attention of 
children for the moment, could scarcely be expected to 
leave, them with a stock of permanenfe^ information 
bearing upon any .one subject. It is now resolved that 
the Beading Lessons shall be used for the purpose of 
instructing, the children in the extra subjects which are 
an essential part of all education, and that the books to 
be used for these lessons shall form a regular series, 
through which the students may successively pass as' 
they rise from the lower classes to the higher. 

The History of England, which is one of the subjects 
specified in the Code as being suitable for teaching 
through Beading Lessons, is the subject of the present 
series. 





English History Beading Books. 



ALFRED THE GREAT and J^ILLIAM THE 

CONQUEEOR By Febdebick Yobk-Powbix, M.A. Law 
Irecturer Ch. Ch. and Historical Lecturer, Trinity College, 
Oxford; Author of 'Early England' in. 'Epochs of English 
History.* With 9 Woodcuts, price 6d, cloth. 

[In preparaiioth. 

RICHARD I. AND EDWARD I. By Mrs. Abmitagb, 
Author of ' The Childhood- of the English Nation.' With 
10 Woodcuts, price 9d. cloth, 

OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY TO THE 
END OF THE TUDOR PERIOD. By Samuel Rawson 
G^ABDiMBB, Honorary Student of Ch. Ch. Oxford ; Author of 
* The Puritan Revolutionf in * Epochs of Modem History.' 
With 44 Woodcuts and Maps, price- 1«. doth. - * 

OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY FROM THE 

TUDOR PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME. ' By 
Samuel Rawsoit Gasdiiteb, Honorary- Student of Ch. Ch. 
Oxford ; Author of * The Puritan Revolution * in * Epochs of 
Modem History.' With numerous Woodcuts. 

\In preparaiioti. 

ENGLISH PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT. 

By James Rowley, M.A. Professor of Modern History tind 
Literature, University College, Bristol ; Author of * The 
Rise of the People ' and • The Settlement of the Constitution * 
in * Epochs of English History.* [In preparation, 

BRITISH RULE IN INDIA. By the Rev. Sir 

Geosob WiLLLiM Cox, Bart. M. A.,Author of * The Crusades ' 
in ' Epochs of Modem History.' [Nearly ready. 



^^^^^«A^t^^^^^^^^^^^AA/^^tfi«AM 



London : LONGMANS, GEEEN, & CO. 



soooseaesx 



EICHABD I. AND EDWAED I. 



^nglisj^ Pistorg §Leabxng ^ooks 



RICHAED I. AND EDWAED I, 



BY 



ELLA S. ARMITAGE 



AUTHOR OF *THB CHILDHOOD OF THB BNOLISH NATION' 



f <^ 'V \ 



. AUG !F82 •) 



.<$>. 



V?-' 



LONDON 
LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND 

1881 

All rights reserved 



CO. 



LONDOJr I PBIKTHD BY 

SP0TTI8WOODB AXD CO., NBW-8TBKBT SQUAAB 

AND FABLIAU BNT 8TBBBT 



FOEBWOEDS. 

The authorities followed in this little book are the 
chronicles of Eoger of Hoveden, Benedict of Peter- 
borough, Ealf of Coggeshall, the Itinerarium Begis 
Eicardi, Walter of Hemingburgh, Nicolas Trivet, 
Eishanger's Chronicle and the other fragments con- 
tained in the same volume of the EoUs Edition, and 
Piers Langtdft. Eeference has also been made to Dr. 
Pauli's Geschichte von England, Professor Pearson's 
Early and Middle Ages of England, and Stubbs's Con- 
stitutional History. Many of the scenes from the 
life of Eichard are translated almost literally from 
the Chronicles. 

Watbbhbad, Oldham : 
Oct, 2, 1880. 



CONTENTS. 



RICHARD I. 

PAGB 

The Death of Henry II 1 

Knighthood 2 

The Crusades 6 

Richard gets ready for the third Crusade .... 7 

Richard and Philip in Messina 8 

Richard builds Mate-griffon 10 

Richard's quarrel with William des Barre^i . . . .11 

The Kings set sail for Palestine 13 

The Queens are driven into Limasol 14 

Richard conquers Cyprus 16 

Fight with a Turkish Ship 18 

The Siege of Acre 20 

Acre is taken 22 

Philip deserts the Crusade 24 

The Massacre of the Turkish Prisoners .... 25 

The Army leaves Acre 26 

The Army stays at Joppa 27 

Richard is nearly taken Prisoner 28 

The March towards Jerusalem 29 

Jerusalem is given up 30 

Richard at Ascalon 1 32 

Quarrel between the Pisans and Genoese . . . . 33 

Murder of Conrad of Montferrat « 34 

Richard's Feats at Ascalon 35 

Richard and the Chaplain 37 

The Second March towards Jerusalem 40 

Richard seizes the Turkish Caravan 41 

The Army returns to Acre 43 

Saladin besieges Joppa 44 

Richard comes to Joppa 45 

Pigs^ Turks, and Christians 48 



VUl 



CONTENTS. 



The Turks snrprise Bichard's Gamp 
The Battle of Joppa . . . . 
Richard makes a Truce with Saladin 
Richard leaves the Holy Land . 
Bichard's Homeward Journey . 
Richard is taken Prisoner . 
Richard's Captivity .... 
Philip invades Normandy . 
Richard is set free .... 
Ridiard goes to fight Philip 
Richard builds the Jolly Castle 
Richard besieges the Castle of Chaluz 
Death of Ric£krd I. . . . 



PAQB 

49 
.50 
62 
53 
63 
65 
67 
69 
60 
62 
63 
65 
66 



EDWARD L 



John and Henry HI 71 

The Battle of Evesham 73 

Edward and Adam Gordon 74 

Edward goes on a Crusade 75 

Edward is nearly murdered 77 

The Little Battle of Chalons 78 

Edward's Good Laws 79 

Edward's First War with Wales 79 

The Conquest of Wales . 81 

Edward entirely subdues Wales 83 

Death of the Maid of Norway 85 

Death of Queen Eleanor 87 

Balliol made King of Scotland 88 

The Dispute with Prance 89 

War with France 90 

A Story of the Welsh Rebellion 92 

End of the French War 93 

The Conquest of Scotland 94 

Siege of Berwick 95 

The Battle of Dunbar 96 

Rebellion of Wallace 98 

The Battle of Falkirk 100 

Edward's Quarrel with his own People ... 102 

The Fate of Wallace .105 

The Drag-sticks 106 

The Rising of Robert Bruce 106 

Edward prepares to march against Bruce . . . . 108 

Bruce is defeated at Methven 110 

Death of Edward L 112 



BICHAEB I. 



The Death of Henry II. 

1, In the year 1189 a king was reigning over 
England, whose son was making war upon him* 
This king was Henry II., and his son's name was 
Bichard. Henry II. was a very great and powerful 
king, for he reigned not only over England, but over 
half of France. The king of France, whose name 
was Philip, could not bear that Henry should have 
so much power in France, and so he made war upon 
him, and enticed Henry's son Eichard to join in the 
war, and to fight against his own father. Eichard 
was very clever and brave, but he had been badly 
brought up, and he was very selfish. Henry was 
then getting old and was feeble in health, and the 
war went badly for him. Nimibers of his barons, 
who ought to have fought for him, went over to the 
side of his enemies. His son Eichard and the king 
of France drove him from town to town, until at last 
he had to consent to a shameful treaty of peace. 

2. When this treaty was signed, Henry asked 
ST. ih B 



2 RICHARD I. 

the king of France to give him a list of the barons 
and knights who had gone over to his foes. The 
first name which he saw on the list was that of his 
son John, his yonngest son, who had always been 
his favourite. When Henry knew that John was a 
traitor, he cared for nothing more in this worlds 
He went back to his bed, and died in a few days. 

3. When his body was being carried to the church 
where it was to be buried, Bichard went to meet it. 
And when he drew near to the corpse, it is said that 
it began to bleed at the nose and mouth. For in 
those days men believed that a corpse would always 
bleed if its murderer were near it. Whether this 
is true or not, it is certainly true that Bichard and 
John broke their father's heart, and were the causes 
of his death. 

4. But now that it was too late to undo the evil 
that had been done, Bichard, whose heart was not 
altogether hard, was very sorry, and shed many 
bitter tears. 

Bad fathers make bad sons ; Bichard might have 
been a better man if he had had a better father. 

Knighthood. 

6. In those days, the thing people cared about 
most was fighting. It had always been so, for it 
was only a few hundred years since the chief nations 
of Europe had been wild barbarians, who lived by 
fighting and plundering other nations. Even the 
clergy, who were very strong in those days, could 
not stop people from fighting. So they tri^ to 



HICHAM) 1. S 

make the best of it that they could. They tried to 
teach people that 'the^= must only fight for just 
causes ; tha* they must defend the weak, and have 
mercy on the poor,' In those days^ every y(mng lad 
who was growing up longed to be a soldier 5 and it 
was the custom when any young man of noble birth 
got to a certain age to give him his arms for the 
first time in a very solemn way, which was called 
making him a knight. 

6. This had been the custom for hundreds of 
years, even in the old heathen times. Now the 
clergy took hold of this custom, and taught all the 
yoimg men who had been trained to be knights to 
make a solemn vow that they would use their 
knighthood to defend the true faith, to uphold 
justice, and to protect women and orphan children. 
And many beautiful tales and songs were made in 
the age in which Eichard lived, which taught that 
the true knight should not only be strong, and fear- 
less, and skilful with his weapons, but also that he 
should be pure and gentle and courteous to high and 
low ; and above all that he should never break his 
word. 

7. Thus the clergy did the best thing they 
could to make Knighthood, or Chivalry as it is 
sometimes called, a good thing instead of a bad. 
And there were some true knights who learned these 
leiSsons trell ; but there were plenty of others who 
did not care a farthing about gentleness, and truth- 
fulness, and defending the weak, and only cared 
about ' killing their eneiaued and making people 
afraid of their valour. 

B 2 .r 



4 BICEABD I. 

8. Perbapa you would like to knoTr what the 
ceremonies were which were used when a yoong 
man wa^ made a knight. He had to spend a whole 
night in prayer in a church ; in the morning he 
heard mass and took the sacrament. Then with his 




sword hanging round bis neck he we tit up to the 
priest, who took it and blessed it, and then hung it 
round his neck again. After that, he knelt at the 
feet of the nobleman or king who was to make him a 
knight, who asked him vbether he 4'onld uphold 



AIOHARD I. 5 

the honour of reUgion and rf knighthood, and he 
had to make the solemn vow which I have spoken 
of before. When he had made this vow he was 
dressed in the different pieces of armour which were 
worn then : first the spurs, then the coat of mail, 
then the breastplatej the greaves for the legs, the 
armlets^ and the gauntletSj then the sword. When 
this was done, he still kept on his knees, and the 
nobleman who was to knight him rose up and struck 
him lightly on the shoulder with the flat of his 
sword, saying, * I make thee a knight in the name of 
Grod, St. Michael, and St. George ; be brave^ hardy, 
and lojral.' The young knight then received his 
helmet, his shield, and his lance, and he might now 
spring upon his horse and show himself to the 
people. 

The Cnuades. 

9. Now it came into the head of a certain pope, 
named Urban II., that it would be a very good thing 
if all this fighting power which there was in the 
knights of Europe, could be used in fighting against 
the Turks, and taking from them the Holy Land, 
that land where Christ was bom, where He had lived 
and taught, and where His grave had been. The 
Turks were very strong in those days, and it seemed' 
not unlikely that they might conquer Europe, as they 
had already conquered the Holy Land. Great grief 
and horror had been caused in Europe when that 
Holy Land and the grave of Christ fell into their 
hands. For more than a thousand years pilgrims 
li^ 4o9ke(| firom all parts of ChnsteQdom to yisit 



6 3I0BABD 1. 

that holy grave, "but when the Turica coHqueeed 
Jerusalem, they made it bpth difficult and dangerous 
for pilgrims to come any m^e, 

10. So Pope Urban II. went himeelf to Fianoe, 
and sent a man named Peter the Hermit throng 
France and Gennany, to preach a holy war against 
the Turks, which was called a Crusade A great 
army was gathered from all parte of Eurc^e, which 
went to the Holy lAnd, won Jerusalem from the 
Turks, and eet up a Christian kingdom in Palestine 
Another crusade was undertaken m the year 1146 




Bat in spite of this help, the Chnstian kmgd<Mii in 
Palestine fell into great danger, for m the time of 
Henry II. the Turks had a very able Sultan or ruler 
named Saladin, who defeated the Christians in agreat 
battle, and won back from them the holy city of 
Jerusalem. 

11. There waa great sorrow and anger in Europe 
when the news cmne that the holy city had again 
become the prey of the Turks, and the Pope sent 
letters through all Christendom, begging men to eet 
out on another crusade. 



JUOHABD I. 7 

Kiohard gets ready for the tMrd Cmsade. 

12. Now Eichard, the son of Henry II., had 
become king of England on his father's death* He 
was a great fighter, very strong and skilful with his 
weapons, and a good general in war ; and above all 
things he wished^ to have the fame of a peerless 
knight, whom no one conld conquer, and whose won- 
derful feats of arms no one. could excel. So Eichard 
took the cross, which was the sign thsfb he intended 
to go on the crusade. And as soon as his father was 
buried, and he himself had been crowned king of 
England, he began to get ready for the third crusade. 

18. By the way in which he set about this, it was 
easy to see that Eichard was not going to be a very 
wise and good king. For he sold everything that he 
could think of to raise money, and said that he would 
even have sold the city of London if he could have 
got anybody to buy it. But the most foolish thing 
he did was to sell a treaty which his father had made 
with Scotland, which put Scotland quite under the 
power of England, a^ thus with a stroke of the pen 
he threw away rights which his fether had won by 
hard fighting. 

14. With the money which he thus raised, 
Richard gathered a I^rge army and fleet. He made 
some very queer laws for the government of this 
fleet. Whoever murdered anyone was to be tied to 
thB murdered man and thrown into the sea. Who- 
ever struck another without drawing blood, was to be 
dipped three times in the sea. Whoever called his 
comrade names, was to pay an ounce of silver for 



8 BICHABD I. 

every time that he did it. Thieves were to be tarred 
and feathered and put on shore. These were rough 
lawB for rough men. In the year 1190, Richard set 
out on the crusade. 

Siohaid and Philip in Heaiina. 

Ifi. Bichaxd's fleet sailed round to the city of 
1 in the island of Sicily, where it waited for 




him. The army marched through France and then 
took ship for Messina. Richard himself does not 
seem to have been fond of the water, for instead of 
going with his army, he went round by the coast of 
Italy, landing wherever he could. Thus at last he 
arrived at Messina, and found both his fleet and 
army waiting for him. Philip, king of France, who 
had also taken the cross, had arrived a few days 
before. Now though Philip had been Richard's ally 
in fighting against Richard's fether, yet now that 
Henry was dead, and Richard had succeeded to his 
throne, Philip was as jealous of Richard as he had 



'BICHAEB I. 9 

been of Henry. And though the two kings had made 
friends and promised to help one another when they 
settled to go together on this crusade, the jealousy 
still remained in Philip's heart, and it was not long 
before it came out. As Eichard was very brave, and 
Philip rather timid, Eichard was called by the 
crusaders the Lion, and Philip the Lamb; and 
Eichard has ever since been known in history as 
Coeur-de-Lion, or the Lion-heart. ■ 

16. The natives of Sicily, a mixed race whom the 
English called Griffons, were very spiteful towards their 
forieign guests, and it was not easy to keep the peace 
between them, and between two large armies like those 
of the kings of France and England. For there were 
other causes of quarrel besides the jealousy of the two 
kings. William, king of Sicily, had been the husband 
of Eichard's sister Joanna ; he was now dead, and his 
cousin Tancred had seized the throne, and had put 
Joanna in prison. When Eichard came to Sicily, he 
made Tancred give up his sister, but Tancred would 
not pay the money which she ought to have had as 
her dowry. One day the quarrels between Eichard's 
men and the Ghriffons rose to such a pitch that the 
citizens of Messina shut the gates and armed them- 
selves to defend their walls. The English began to 
storm the city, but Eichard rode up and drove his 
men away with a stick. Next day the chief nobles 
of Sicily and the leading citizens of Messina cam^e 
to treat with the king, and they had already soothed 
his wrath, when a cry was heard, * To arms ! ' The 
Griffons had attacked the dwelling of an English 
knight, Richard mounted his hwse, and led his 



10 BIGHABB L 

troops against ihe city. In one good assault Jbe 
carried the walls^ and soon the flag pf. England waved 
from the towers of Messina, 



Biohard builds Uate^griffon. 

17. The king of France, who during the struggle 
had given help to the Grri£fons instead of to king 
Bichard, was by no means pleased when he saw the 
English banner flying on the walls, and sent an 
order to king Bichard to pull it down, and put up 
the French flag instead. Bichard did not even deign 
to answer this at first, but at last his anger was 
softened a little, and he allowed the king of France's 
banner to float on the towers by the side of his. 
Both kings then sent messengers to Tancred to ask 
that he should make good the damage which had 
been done,. and that the full dowry of queen Joanna 
should be paid. Meanwhile king Philip again tried 
to proToke Bichard to a quarrel by asking that the 
spoils of the city of Messina' should be given to him. 
Bichard was so angry at this that he threatened 
to set off . at onpe, and leave Philip where he was. 
Again, peace had to be . made between th^ kings, 
and it was. promised t^at everything they gained in 
future should be equally divided. 

18. As king Tancred did not seem very ready 
to grant what Bichard had asked, Bichard built a 
wooden^ castle oipi a hill dose to Messina, in such a 
place as to have fall command of the city, and called it 
Mate-griffoUy because he had built it in order that he 
might be a match for the Crriflbns. At last Tancred 



BIOHABD I. 11 

• * " * • » 

was brought ta nmke peac^ ^ith kii^g lUehardj 
he paid quean Joanna's dowry, s^d it w^b ' ari^mg^ 
tliat his daughter should marry B^chard's nephew 
Arthur* After this, Richard ^restored to the citizeafi 
of Messina aU. the booty which had be^ taken firpm 
them ; and as this pleased them v^y much, firom 
this time they became veiy good friends with him. 
As his soldiers were beginning to grumble at having 
spent all the siunmer idly in Sicily, instead of going 
on to the help of the Holy Land, he gave them all 
large gifts, so that he became popular with every-* 
body. 

Richard's quarrel with William des Barres. 

19. Th0 winter was passed in 8icily, and king 
Kichard mfule a splendid feast in Mate-griffon on 
Christmas Day. But the winter did not pass in per- 
fect peace, for there were many quarrels among the 
great host of cru&aders, and once king IGchard 
himself was the cause of )trouble.' Iti the month of 
February, oto Saturday after dinner, Bichard and 
many knights of hi& household giithered outside the 
city of Messina to play games. When they went 
home, as they were passing through the middle of 
the city, they met a peasant coming from the 
country with an ass laden with canes t and th^ king 
of England and those who wej?e with him took thede 
caties and began to tilt with one another. It 
h^pened ihaJt the king 6f England was tiltiftg with 
William ' des Barres, a brave knight of th^ king of 
Ff a«oe?s. houfleh«J^ and- th^y totb broke' tbdir e&xm. 



12 RIOHilBD I. 

The king's helmet was broken by William's stroke, 
and the king in a rage rode at William, so that he 
made both him and his horse stagger; but just as 
he thought he would throw William to the ground, 
his saddle slipped, so the king quickly got oflF and 
mounted another horse. Then he charged at William 
again, but he could not throw him over, for William 
stuck well to his horse's neck ; so Richard got angry, 
and began to caU him names. One of the king's 
knights came to help him against William, but the 
king said, * Wait, and leave him to me.' When the 
king and William had fought for some time with 
both words and blows, Bichard broke out upon him 
and cried, * Fly hence, and beware that you never 
show yourself before me again, for henceforth I will 
be an everlasting enemy to you and yours.' 

20. So William departed, sad and cast-down on 
account of the king's wrath and spite, and went to 
his lord the king of JVance, to ask his counsel and 
help about what had happened. The king of France 
went next day to the king of England, begging him 
to forgive William, but Bichard would not. The 
next day some of the highest nobles of France came 
and asked the same thing in the most humble 
manner on their knees, but the king would not 
even hear them. So William des Barres left Mes- 
sina, because the king of France woidd not keep 
him contrary to the will of the king of England. 
Affcer many days, when it was time to embark, the 
king of France, and all the archbishops, bishops, 
earls and barons of the army, fell on their kne6s 
before the king of Eng^nd, asking him to forgive 



EICHABD I. 13 

Wiliiam des Barres, and showing how much such a 
brave knight would be missed. At last with great 
diflSculty they obtained from the king of England 
that he would make peace with William des Barres ; 
and Eichard promised that he would not do any 
injury to him or his as long as he was on the 
crusade. 

21. I tell this story, because it shows Eichard's 
pride, which was one of his worst faults. Yet Ei- 
chard was not a man to nurse a grudge for ever ; 
and afterwards, in the Holy Land, he became quite 
friends again with William des Barres, and William 
by his valour was of very great help in one of the 
battles which were fought there. 

The EiAgs set sail for Palestine. 

22. At last in March 1191, king Philip set sail 
for Palestine, but Eichard waited still, because his 
mother, queen Eleanor, was bringing out to him his 
bride Berengaria, daughter of the king of Navarre. 
When these ladies arrived, the wedding was put off 
for a time, because it was still Lent, and the Eo- 
man Church did not allow marriages in Lent ; so 
Eichard put Berengaria in a ship with his sister 
Joanna, and with some good soldiers to take care of 
them, and sent them on in advance ; and as soon as 
he could get ready, he set sail &om Messina with 
all his fleet. They sailed day and nighty and at 
night the king had a great candle lighted in a 
lantern, and placed high on the poop of his ship, 
that he might show the Way to all the rest of the 



14 filOHAdD I. 

fl^t. Thej. met with many storms &t sea, which 

made them gkd to .laad, first »t Crete, and ^iet~ 

yiaxia at Rhodes, where fiichard was sick iot sonvs 

days, 




qrrEinT brrehoabta. 

The Qaeens are driven into lamaul. 

28. The ship in which Berengaria and Joamia 
nere sailing was driven by a storm into a harbour <^ 
OypruB, called Uimasol, and as they were afraid to land 
on that island, they were riding at anchor off the 
coast, waiting for king lUchard. Kow several of the 



:biohabi>. I. 15 

king's fihipB had been wrecked' by this same storm on 
the shores of Cyprus, and the people of Cyprus, in- 
stead of being . kind to the shipwrecked sailors and 
pilgrims, had behaved very falsely- to ihem. They 
took their arms from them^ and shut them up in 
a castle with nothing to eat.\ Then rthey held a 
council over .them, to decide whether they should 
kill them.. But the crusaders thought it was better 
to be killed in fair fight than to die of hunger, io 
they forced their way out of the castle in a body. 
The . Cypriots (as the men of Cyprus are called) 
gathered round them and attacked them, but the 
crusaders fought with the courage of despair, and 
though they had only three bows among them, they 
killed a great many Cypriots. Meanwhile some more 
English ships had arrived, and the soldiers onboard, 
seeing, the struggle, made haste to help their Mends. 
The Cypriots fought against them with bows and 
cross-bows, but still they got to land, and there a 
close fight began By this time the pilgrims from 
the castle had beaten their way through the Cypriots 
down to the port, and joining with the other English 
who had just landed, they soon put the rest of the 
natives to flight and took possession of the harbour, 
24. Now the Emperor of Cyprus, whose name 
was Isaac, was a very sly and cunning man. He 
wished to get the two queens, Berengaria and Joanna, 
into his power, so he sent messengers to them on 
their ship, bearing them fine presents, bread, meat, 
and the very best wine of Cyprus, the finest wine in 
the world, and inviting them to come On shore. 
They were very much frightetied, iand scarcely knew 



16 BIGHABD L 

what to doj for they did not trust the emperor atall^ 
and in the meanwhile there was no sign of Eichard's 
fleet. So they tried to put the emperor off by 
promising that they would land and come to him 
the next day. But that very same day, in the midst 
of their fear, suddenly they beheld in the offing two 
ships coming speedily under full sail. And while 
they watched them, not knowing what they were, 
they saw other ships coming behind them, and soon 
a great fleet covered the sea, and bore towards the 
port. Then they knew it was king Bichard's fleet, 
and they were filled with joy. 

Aicliard conq^aers Cyprttd. 

25. When King Eichard had reached the harbour 
of limasol^ and had been told of all that had 
happened, he sent two knights to the emperor Isaac, 
asking that h6 should make good the injury which 
had been done to the crusaders, and that the things 
taken firom them should be given back. At this the 
emperor was very angry and scornful, and all th.e 
answer he would give to the messengers was * Stuff, 
gentlemen ! ' Whereupon Eichard ordered his men 
to arms and they all set out in the ships' boats for 
the shore. 

26. The emperor thought he would prevent them 
from landing, so he threw up barriers all round the 
port, made of whatever he could get ; doors of houses, 
windows, big wine-jars, benches, steps, timber, 
shields, old boats, and all kinds of things ; whatever 
he could find he heaped up on the shore for k 



BICHAED I. 17 

barrier. He himself with his people stood armed 
upon the shore, and they were a gay sight, as they 
wore beautifully wrought armour, and costly clothes 
of many colours, and had splendid horses and mules. 
They had also filled five galleys near the shore with 
a company of young men well skilled in fighting by 
water. They jeered and laughed at the English as 
they came rowing towards the land in their small 
boats, for they thought but little of these sea-worn 
men. But the English cross-bowmen and archers 
very soon drove the young men out of the five 
galleys, and made them jump into the sea. Then 
the English drew to land, and again the archers sent 
a deadly shower of arrows, thick as rain, against 
those who were guarding the shore. The struggle 
was long and hard, and the air was darkened with 
arrows and stones from both sides. 

27. It seemed doubtful for some time which side 
would have the best of it, till at last the king him- 
self, seeing his men hesitate to land, jumped fi-om 
his boat into the sea, and attacked the Cypriots 
hand to hand. Then all the English followed him, 
charged upon the Cypriots, and put them to flight. 
They drove them first into the city, and afterwards 
firom the city into the plain beyond. The king 
pursued the fleeing emperor, and jumping upon a 
pack-horse, which had a bag behind the saddle and 
only cords for reins, he rode after him, crying, * My 
Lord Emperor, come and fight with me in single 
combat.' But the emperor only ran away the faster. 
Thus the king took the city of Limasol, and the 
queens landed from their ship, and were glad to find 

ST. n. 



18 RICHABD I, 

rest and quiet in the city after being tossed about on 
the waves for so long. 

28. Before long the wedding of Richard andBeren- 
garia took place at Limasol, with great splendour. 
Berengaria was beautiful and amiable, and Bichard 
is said to have loved her ever since he was a boy ; 
but he did not make her a very good husband. He 
neglected her very much, and was not true to her ; 
but once in his life he sent for her, and told her how 
sorry he was to have behaved so badly to her, and 
promised to do better in future. 

29. To make a long story short, Bichard con- 
quered the whole of Cyprus in a fortnight ; he took 
prisoner the emperor Isaac and his daughter, and 
gained most splendid booty. While he was in 
Cyprus, the king of France sent to ask him why he 
was wasting his time there, instead of coming to the 
help of the Holy Land. But Bichard answered that 
he was not wasting his time, for the conquest of 
Cyprus was a thing very needful for the welfare of 
the crusade ; and in this he was quite right. After 
he had set everything in order in Cyprus, he set sail 
for Palestine. 

Fight with a Turkish Ship. 

80. As they drew near to the coasts of Palestine, 
a large Turkish ship hove in sight; she was of 
inmiense size and strength, and heavily laden with 
arms of all kinds, and with vials of Greek fire, an 
e^jplosive stuff which the Eastern people knew how 
to make and^use hx war. This ship was going to the 



KICHARD I. 19 

help of the city of Acre, to which an army of 
crusaders were laying siege. At first, those on board 
the ship pretended they were Frenchmen, but it was 
soon found out that they were Turks, and they were 
forthwith attacked by king Eichard. The ship was 
full of the very best of the Turkish soldiers, and they 
defended themselves bravely. Their ship was so 
much taller than those of king Eichard, that they 
overwhelmed them with darts from above, though 
king Kichard's ships being smaller and lighter, flew 
quickly round and round the big ship, but could not 
get any advantage over her. 

31. King Eichard seeing that his men began to 
hang back, cried shame upon them, and spurred them 
on to try again. Then a number of his sailors sprang 
into the water, and diving under the big ship, tied 
up the rudder with ropes, that they might. send the 
ship off her course; then creeping carefully up to her 
side, some of them seized the rigging and boarded 
her. The Turks cut them to pieces ; whereat the 
crews of the other ships being very wroth, boarded 
the Turkish vessel and drove the Turks into the 
poop. But here the Turks made such a brave defence 
that the English began to get the worst of it, and 
were driven back into their galleys. The king, 
seeing it was impossible to capture the ship, ordered 
one of his galleys to run her down. This was done ; 
the galley, which was rowed by oars, was sent forward 
at full speed, and her iron beak was plimged into 
the side of the Turkish ship. She heeled over and 
sank ; the greater part of her crew were drowned, 
and the rf st taken prisoners. The loss of this ship 

c 2 



20 BIGHABD I. 

was a great blow to the Turkish defenders of Acre, 
and the Sultan Saladin, when he heard of it, cried 
and howled and tore his beard. 



The Siege of Acre. 

32. The crusaders had been besieging Acre for 
nearly two years when Bichard arrived there. But 
they had not got on well with the siege, and they 
were themselves besieged by the army of Saladin, 
and shut in on all sides except the sea. They were 
suffering from dearth of food and from dreadful sick- 
ness. They were also disturbed by quarrels amongst 
themselves, for they were of different nations, 
Germans, Italians, French, and English, and it was 
seldom that they could all agree together. There 
was great joy in the camp of the crusaders when 
Bichard arrived, for he was the best soldier of his 
age, and by far the best engineer^ that is, he knew 
how to make plans and machines for taking cities ; 
and everyone hoped that he would soon take the 
city of Acre, which was the key of the Holy Land. 

33. The king of France had already been two 
months before Acre when Bichard arrived, and the 
old jealousies between the two kings soon began 
again. King Philip gave each of his soldiers three 
gold pieces a month, so king Bichard, that he 
might outshine the French king, offered four gold 
pieces a month to anyone who would serve under 
him. Very soon after his coming, Bichard was 
taken ill, and Philip thought this a good time to 
'^hoose for making an attack on the city, so he sent 



RICHARD 1. 21 

a summons to king Eichard to join him. Richard 
answered that he was too ill to go, and that besides, 
all his forces had not yet arrived. Philip therefore 
went to the attack without him ; but the assault was 
repulsed with great loss, and the spirits of the 
crusaders fell. 

34. But they still worked away with their engines 
against the walls. The king of France had a very 
good stone-bow, or machine for throwing stones, which 
was called the Bad Neighbour. The Turks had 
another within the city which was called the Bad 
Kinswoman; and very often the Bad Kinswoman 
knocked the Bad Neighbour to pieces with showers 
of stones, but the king always built her up again, 
until at last she knocked down a part of the chief 
wall of the city, and shattered a tower which was 
called the Cursed Tower.^ The Duke of Burgundy and 
the two chief orders of knights had all their stone- 
bows constantly showering stones upon the city. 
Besides these, there was a stone-bow built at the 
common expense, called the Stone-bow of God, and 
by it a priest was constantly preaching, a very active 
man, who collected money to keep it always in 
repair, and to pay for stones brought for it to throw. 
This stone-bow made a breach two perches long near 
the Cursed Tower. King Eichard also had two stone- 
bows, but besides these he built other engines, which 
were very useful, and which worked constantly, day 
and night. One day a stone from one of these 
engines killed twelve men at a blow. 

36. King Richard was kept in bed by fever, 
grievously tormented that he could not fight himself 



22 BICHARD I. 

against the Turks. The Christiaiis worked on with 
their engines, till the Turks within the city made a 
signal of distress to the army of Saladin outside. 
The French undermined a part of the wall, and set 
fire to the beams which held it up. The wall fell 
in, and the Christians mounted upon the breach. A 
Frenchman named Alberic Clements cried out, * To- 
day I will either die, . or I will enter Acre ! ' and 
mounting a ladder, he gained the top of the wall. 
A number of Frenchmen followed him, more than 
the ladder could bear ; it fell, and all of them were 
killed or hurt. Alberic was left alone on the top of 
the wall, among a crowd of Turks, by whom he was 
soon slain. Out of grief for the death of this brave 
man, the Christians left off the attack for that day. 

Acre is taken. 

36. As soon as king Bichard was better, and 
before he was quite well, he began the attack again. 
He was carried to the fight on a silken bed, but firom 
his bed he shot at the Turks with his cross-bow, 
which he used very skilfully. With a stone firom 
his cross-bow he killed a Turk who showed himself 
on the walls, wearing the armour of Alberic Clements. 
Eichard's miners made a breach in the walls of 
one of the towers, and he offered as much as four 
pieces of gold to anyone who would bring a stone 
out of it. But as the wall was immensely high and 
thick, there was not much progress made, and the 
Turks defended themselves with the greatest bravery. 
One day, the English along with the crusaders firom 



Pisa,, a city in Italy, made an attack on the wall 
while the army was at dinner ; but having made the 




attack alone, their numbers were not strong enough 
to resist the great valour of the Turks, and they 
were driven back. 

37. The courage and virtue of the besieged were 
truly wonderful. But at last they were forced to 
offer a surrender, if they might go out with their 
arms and all their goods. To this the king of 
France would have agreed ; but Bichard would not 
allow it, because he did not care to enter an empty 
city, after so much toil and blood had been spent 



24 niCHABI) I. 

upon it. So the siege went on again, until t^lie 
Turks were driven to oflTer better terms ; thejr 
oflFered to go out of the city in their shirts onljr, 
leaving all their goods, to give up 2,500 Christia,ii 
captives, to restore a piece of wood which was believed 
to be the Holy Cross, which they had captured some 
years before, and to pay a sum of 200,000 talents. 
Thus Acre was surrendered ; and if the Christians 
had before admired the bravery of the Turks, they 
now admired no less the calmness and patience with 
which they bore trouble, not showing any sign of 
pain in their faces as they marched out of the city. 

Philip deserts the Crusade. 

38. Acre being taken, it was not long before Philip 
and Eichard began to quarrel again, and they had an 
easy cause of quarrel, because Philip wanted Conrad 
of Montferrat to be made king of Jerusalem, while 
Bichard supported Guy of Lusignan, who was already 
king. Now Guy of Lusignan belonged to a fiimily 
who were old enemies of Eichard's ; but when king 
Guy came to Eichard in Cyprus, a suppliant, asking 
for help to regain his kingdom, from which he had 
been driven by the Turks, Eichard, who was of a 
forgiving temper, easily forgot their old grudges, 
and was ever afterwards a firm friend to king 
Guy. 

39. Before long the king of France began to talk 
of going home. Everybody begged him to stay; 
some went so far as to curse him if he should go, 
because it was so needful for the welfare of the 



EICHAKD I. 25 

crusade, that those who had begun it should stick to 
it, and carry it out to the end. But Philip made all 
sorts of false excuses, and would not listen to what 
anyone said, but left Acre, and went back to France. 
He left the French host under the command of the 
Duke of Burgundy. Richard, who felt no trust in 
Philip, made him take an oath before he left, that he 
would do nothing against Eichard or his lands, while 
Eichard was still on crusade. How Philip kept this 
oath we shall see afterwards. The French troops 
who stayed in the Holy Land were left without any 
pay until Richard, who was always open-handed, 
advanced 5,000 marks to them. 

The Hassacre of the Turkish Prisoners. 

40. The Turkish Sultan, Saladin, kept putting off 
as long as he could the payment of the money which 
he had promised. The prisoners who had been taken 
at Acre were still in the hands of the crusaders as 
hostages for the payment of this money. Richard 
waited for some weeks after the money was due, and 
then he ordered the hostages, to the number of 2,700 
men, to be brought out before the city and beheaded. 
This was a horrible deed, and it has been regarded 
as a great stain on Richard's name ; but the blame 
should not rest on Richard alone, but on that evil 
feeling which was shared by all the crusaders, which 
made them think the lives of all who were not 
Christians of no more value than those of dogs. The 
worst thing about it was that it seems to have given 
pleasure to the Christian army to do it. 



26 mCHAIUO L 

The Army leaves Acre. 

41. Next day the crusading army set out on its 
march towards Jerusalem. Eichard was now the 
head of the crusade ; all the expense and the greater 
part of the labour fell upon him. But Conrad erf 
Montferrat, the firiend of Philip, was still in the 
Holy Land, and Conrad did all he could to thwart 
Sichard's success. And besides Conrad, the Franks 
who lived in the Holy Land were a very bad set of 
men, who cared little about winning Jerusalem from 
the Turks, but only cared that the Christian host 
should win back for them their own estates. It 
would have needed a very great statesman as well as 
a great general, to have carried the crusade to a 
good end under such difficulties as these ; and Bichard 
was not a great statesman, though he was a very good 
general. 

42. It was his plan to make sure of the coast of 
Palestine as far as Joppa, and from Joppatotake the 
road to Jerusalem. He led the way himself in the 
vanguard of the army. His standard, on which was 
the figure of a dragon, was raised high on a taU mast, 
carried on four wheels, and defended by a chosen 
band of the bravest Normans and English. Every 
night, just before bedtime, a herald went through 
the army, crying with a loud voice, * Help the Holy 
Grave ! ' And all the soldiers answered, with sighs 
and prayers and sometimes with tears, *Help the 
Holy Grave I ' It was summer, and the army 
suffered frightfully from the heat, which is very great 
in that land, beyond any heat which we ever have 



BICHABD I. 27 

here. The soldiers were also very much plagued by 
the poisonous spiders which are called Tarantulas. 

48. They were harassed all along the march by 
the army of Saladin, which hung about them, but 
only once dared to meet them in open field. This 
was at Arsouf, where Eichard won a splendid victory 
over Saladin. Eichard himself, mounted on a yellow 
Cypriot horse, rushed into the midst of the battle, 
crying * Help us, and the Holy Grrave, God I * But 
the victory would have been much more complete if 
the Knights Hospitallers had obeyed Eichard's orders, 
and had not thrown all the army into confusion by 
charging before the time. The Knights Hospitallers 
were an order of knights founded to take care of pil- 
grims in the Holy Land, and to fight against the Turks. 
They were very brave, but they were not always very 
wise. 

The Army stays at Joppa. 

44. In September the army reached Joppa, and 
the soldiers refreshed themselves with the grapes, 
figs, pomegranates, and almonds which grew richly 
outside the city. A council of war was held, to 
decide whether it would be best to march straight 
on to Jerusalem, or to drive the Turks out of Ascalon, 
an important city on the coast. Eichard thought it 
would be best to go to Ascalon, because the city was 
such a very important one for the safe passage of 
pilgrims. But the French insisted that it would 
be best first to rebuild the walls of Joppa, and then 
to advance towards Jerusalem. The voice of the multi- 
tude was on the same side ; so a collection was made 



28 BICHAHD 1. 

for the repairing of Joppa, and eveiybody set to work 
at digging the ditches and building np the towers. 
Bat this stay at Joppa was a great mistake ; the 
soldiers soon fell into idle habits, and gave np their 
time to games and feasting. Many of them deserted 
the army and went off to Acre ; and Kichard had to 
go to Acre himself and to use all his eloquence in 
order to bring them back again. The army was 
thus delayed nearly seven weeks at Joppa. 

Richard is nearly taken Prisoner. 

46. One day king Sichard, with a very few of his 
friends, went hawking into the country. They got 
very tired and lay down and went to sleep ; when 
suddenly the Turks came down upon them. Bichard 
had only just time to jump upon his yellow Cypriot 
horse, and to charge upon the Turks with his friends. 
The Turks fled, but only in order that they might 
lead king Sichard into a place where a still greater 
number of Turks were lying hidden. These suddenly 
rushed out and surrounded the king, trying to take 
him. The king defended himself with such brave 
swinging .of his great sword, that no one dared come 
near him; but the number of Turks was so great 
that he would certainly have been taken if one of his 
friends, WiUiam des Preaux, had not called out in the 
Turkish language that he was the king. So the Turks 
carried him off, and left Bichard. The king's friends 
told him that he was very rash to have gone so &r 
out without a strong enough company, and begged 
that he would not do such a thing again. Everybody 



BICHABD I. 29 

-vrsLQ very sorry for William dee Preaux, who was a 
prisoner in the hands of the Turks ; but it was a noble 
tiling in him to give himself up for his master. 

The Haroh towards Jerusalem. 

46. In October the army began to march towards 
Jerusalem. It was a very hard march, for the Turks 
harassed the Christians at every step. It happened 
one day that a party of squires, with an escort of 
Knights Templars, went out to get fodder for their 
horses. The Knights Templars were an order of 
knights created solely for the defence of the Holy 
Land. They were suddenly attacked by about four 
thousand Turkish horsemen. Now the Templars 
were men who thought it a shame to run away from 
Turks, even if one man were attacked by a whole 
army ; and this bravery of theirs they carried to quite 
a foolish point, so that they often were the cause of 
very great disasters to the Christian armies in the 
Holy Land. They would not run away now, but 
getting down from their horses, they placed them- 
selves back to back and defended themselves man- 
fully. They were nearly overcome by numbers, when 
fifteen Christian knights came to their help. But 
the number of the Turks kept growing, and the king 
hearing the noise of the battle, sent two of his earls 
to help, and in a short time followed himself. 

47. By this time the number of the Turks had 
grown so large, that Eichard's friends thought it was 
impossible the Christians could win, and begged the 
king not to expose himself in such a doubtftil 



so BICHABD I. 

business. They told him that it was better that all 
the crasaders who were in that battle should perish, 
than that he, on whom the fete of the whole army 
hung, should run so great a risk. At this the king 
turned very red, and said, * When I sent my dear 
friends into the battle, I promised that I would 
speedily bring them help; if lam not as good as my 
word, if I leave those to die who have trusted in me, 
I will never more usurp the name of a king ! ' With 
out saying more he put spurs to his horse, and charg- 
ing with unspeakable fury upon the Turks, he broke 
their ranks, and threw them into disorder. Eetum- 
ing upon them, he charged again and again, swinging 
his sword, so that arms and heads flew before him. 
The Turks were routed, and the day was won, with- 
out any help from the French. 

Jenualem is given up. 

48. It was on this march from Joppa that Richard 
first found out how hard a task he had undertaken. 
He began to think that it would be well to treat with 
Saladin, and he sent messengers to him. Saladin sent 
his brother to treat with Richard, and this brother 
was a man of such pleasing manners that he soon 
became great friends with the king. He sent Bichaid 
many beautiful gifts, a costly tent, and seven splen- 
did camels. Some of the crusaders were quite dis- 
gusted to see how friendly Richard became with this 
Turk. But it was a very good thing that there was 
sometimes this friendly dealing between Turks and 
Christians, in which they learned to look upon one 



BICHABD I. 31 

another as men, and not as dogs. Saladin and 
Hichard could not agree on any terms of peace, so 
the firiendship was soon broken off. 

49. The army spent Christmas at Eamleh, and 
stayed there six ^eeks, suffering much from the 
heavy winter rains of Palestine, as well as from the 
attacks of the Turks. About the New Year they set 
out again for Jerusalem. A terrible storm of rain 
and hail arose ; the tent poles were knocked down 
and blown far away, many of the horses died of cold, 
the greatest part of the food, being biscuit, was 
spoilt by the wet, and the bacon rotted. The 
armour all became rusty, and the clothes rotten, and 
very many of the host fell sick. Still they were 
cheered by the hope of reaching the end of their 
pilgrimage ; for they were now more than half-way 
to Jerusalem, and their spirits rose as they drew 
nearer to the holy city, and the grave of the Lord, 
which they so- much yearned to see. In this hope 
they bore all the sufferings of the journey. They 
began now to rub up their armour, and take the 
greatest care to keep their swords and helmets bright. 

60. But what was their despair and grief when 
having come almost within sight of Jerusalem, they 
heard that the leaders of the army had decided that 
it would be better to give up Jerusalem this time, 
and instead of going there to go southwards and re- 
build the city of Ascalon, an important post on the 
southern coast. This was chiefly owing to the 
advice of the Franks who lived in the Holy Land, 
who were afraid that the Christian soldiers would all 
want to return into Europe p.s soon as they had seen 



32 nCHASD L 

the Holy Gnre, and who wuiied to keep them in 
Palestine as long as possible to seire their own ^ids. 
So great was the disajqpointment of the pOgiims that 
many of them coned the day on whidi they were 
bom; and with sore hearts they&llowed the king to 
Ascalon. Many of them fell sick fimn bitterness of 
aool and the miseries of the march, which was a 
tenible one, owing to the frig^tfol stonns, the 
dreadfol state of the roads, and the loss of horses. 
The sick woold have perished aa the way, if Bichard 
had not taken thooghtfiil care for them, and placed 
them in Uie midst of his army; for the Turks 
thought nothing of attacking the sick, and killing 
them in the beds in which they were being carried. 
6L The greater part of the French deserted on 
Uie way, and went to Acre, in the hope of weakening 
BichanL The tronbles of the army did not cease 
when they got to Ascalon, which they found entirely 
in mins, for the weather was so bad that the provi- 
sion ships which they were expecking could not get 
into the harbour, and they had to wait eight days 
without any food but the little they had brought with 
them. 

Bichard at Ascalon. 

62. At Ascalon Bichard threw himself with zeal 
into the work of building the walls, working with 
his own hands and encouraging others; and three 
quarters of the city were built at his expense. While 
he was at Ascalon, he went forth one day with a 
chosen band of knights to see a certain castle which 
he wished to take, because it was a too convenient 



RICHAED I. 33 

station for the Turks on the highway from Jerusalem 

to Egypt. Now it happened that the evening before 

a body of Turks had arrived there, bringing with 

them twelve hundred Christians, whom they were 

taking down into Egypt to sell for slaves. The 

Turks were not thinking that Eichard was anywhere 

near, and when they saw his banner advancing they 

were so frightened that they all ran into a tower of 

the castle, and left their Christian captives outside. 

The Christians at once hurried off into a church 

which stood near, and there the king found them. He 

unbound them, and killed a great many of the Turks. 

He brought back to his camp, along with the 

Christians, many fine horses which he took from the 

Turks. 

Quarrel between the Pisans and Genoese. 

63. While the Christians at Ascalon were rebuild- 
ing the walls of that city, those who were at Acre 
were quarrelling amongst themselves. The Genoese, 
who came from a famous seaport of Italy called 
Genoa, wanted Conrad of Montferrat to be king of 
Jerusalem, while the Pisans, who came from another 
famous Italian seaport, took the side of king Guy. 
The French at this time quarrelled again with king 
Richard, and leaving him at Ascalon, they went to 
Acre, where they took sides with the Genoese. A 
battle was fought, in which the Pisans got the upper 
hand, made themselves safe in the city, and defended 
themselves for three days. Eichard had to go to 
Acre himself, to put an end to this quarrel. As soon 
as it was heard that he was coming, Conrad of Mont- 

ST. II. D 



34 BICHASD I 

ferrat and the French went off to Tyre, fiichaxd 
made peace between the Fisans and Genoese, and 
went back to Ascalon ; but these quarrels among the 
crusaders showed him how little hope there was of 
bringing the crusade to a good end. 

Murder of Conrad of Hontferrat 

54. Just after Easter, letters came to Bichard 
from England, telling him of the mischief which his 
brother Earl John was causing there, and begging 
him to come back to his kingdom and put things 
to rights. £ichard was very much upset by this 
news ; he called a council of the leaders of the army, 
and told them that he must go home. The opinion 
of the council was that a king must be chosen for the 
Holy Land, to settle the dispute between Guy and 
Conrad of Montferrat, and when Sichard asked 
whether they would choose Guy or Conrad, they chose 
Conrad. Richard, though he himself wished Guy to 
be king, for Conrad was his enemy, agreed to the 
choice which had been made. He very generously 
gave the kingdom of Cyprus to Guy, to make up for 
the loss of Jerusalem. Conrad was full of joy at his 
election, but he did not enjoy his honour long, for 
just as he had got everything ready for his coronation, 
he was murdered by an Arab chief called the Old 
Man of the Mountain. The French and other 
enemies of Bichard tried to make out that he had 
caused the murder, that they might stir up hatred 
against him. 



BIOHAED I. 35 

Aicltard's Feats at Ascalon. 

66. Eichard was never idle while he was at 
Ascalon, for when the building of the walls was 
finished, he busied himself with attacks upon the 
Turks. The Turks grew very much afiraid of him ; 
they had never seen any one like him in Palestine. 
He would often attack almost alone a number of 
Turks, and nearly every day he brought back ten, 
twelve, or twenty heads of Turks whom he had killed. 
He looked upon killing Turks much as gentlemen 
now look upon shooting grouse. Never did any man 
kill so many Turks. It was said that long afterwards 
the Turkish women in Palestine would say to their 
crying children, * Be quiet, or I will give you to king 
Bichard ! ' Such a name of terror did he leave be- 
hind him. 

66. One day, when he had been out to fight, but 
could not find his foes, he met on his return an 
enormous wild boar, which he wounded, and which 
charged upon him. The wild boar is a very fierce 
and dangerous beast, and the king, who was on horse- 
back, could do nothing but spur his horse and leap 
over the boar as it was charging. When the boar 
returned to the charge, he struck it such a blow with 
his sword that it was stunned, and he easily finished 
itofi*. 

Another time, when he was roused firom his bed 
by an attack of the Turks, he had only time to 
seize his sword and shield, and rushing out, he 
killed four Turks and made prisoners of seven: the 
rest ran away. 



86 BIGHAED L 

67. One of the most important feats which, he 
performed daring his stay at Ascalon was the taking 
of the castle of Darom. It had been arranged that 
some of the French, who were still at Acre, shonld 
come and join in this expedition ; but Richard, who 
could not bear to be idle, got tired of waiting*, and 
set out with only the knights of his household. 
Every king or great man in those days kept a 
number of knights in his own house, who with their 
squires and pages made up quite a respectable body 
of soldiers, and were always spoken of as his house- 
hold. Bichard and his household set out by sea, 
taking with them several stone-bows, which were 
taken to pieces and packed up on the ships. They 
arrived at Darum, and set up their tents before the 
town. The Turks at first despised such a small force, 
but they soon betook themselves into the castle, 
where they shut themselves up. The stone-bows 
were unpacked out of the ships, and the king him- 
self and his nobles carried the pieces of these great 
engines on their own shoulders firom the sea to the 
town, a weary march on foot for about a mile. When 
the stone-bows were set up, the king chose one to 
work himself. He made them work day and night 
without stopping. 

68. The castle of Darum had no less than seven- 
teen strong towers, one of which was higher and 
stronger than the others, and was surrounded by a 
deeper ditch. The king ordered his diggers to 
undermine it. The Turks had a machine on the 
top of this tower, firom which they threw showers of 
stones and darts on the besiegers, but it was broken 



RICHAKB I «f 

up by the stones thrown from the king's stone-bow, 
to the great grief of the Turks. Th^ king's cross- 
bowmen kept sharp watch for anyone who should 
show himself on the walls, and. then picked him oflF 
with their shots. The gate of the castle was burnt 
with fire, and the Turks in despair oflfered to sur- 
render on condition that they might all go out in 
freedom. This the king refused, and set his stone- 
bows playing more fiercely than ever. 

69. Soon one of the smaller towers fell with a 
dreadful crash, and the Turks fled to the chief tower, 
which was the only one that now seemed at all safe. 
The crusaders now swarmed into the castle, and soon 
the towers were covered with their banners. AH 
the Turks who could not get to the great tower in 
time were killed 4 and those who were in the great 
tower, seeing that it could not hold out long, gave 
themselves up to the king's mercy. They were 
brought away as captives, their hands being tightly 
and even cruelly bound behind their backs. Forty 
Christian captives were found in the castle, and were 
set firee. 

This exploit at Darum gave particular pleasure to 
Kichard and his taaen, because it was done without 
any help from the French, who did Hot arrive at 
Darum until all was over. 

Richard and the Chaplain. 

60. Not long after this, more bad news came 
from England. Earl John was turning the kingdom 
upside down, and he was in league with the King 



38 RICHARD I. 

of France to take it from Eichard. Richard was very 
much vexed, and after turning things over in his 
mind for some time in silence, he spoke and said that 
he ought to go back to England, lest he should lose 
his kingdom. 

61. As the crusaders were all very much excited 
at the rumour that Richard would leave them, a 
council of chiefs was held, and they decided that 
whether the king went or stayed, they would go to 
Jerusalem without delay. When this decision was 
known in the army, it caused unspeakable gladness ; 
rich and poor rejoiced together, and at night they 
went about by torchlight, dancing and singing. The 
king alone was plunged in anxious thought, not 
knowing what to do, and his mind became so 
troubled that he fell sick, and took to his bed for 
several days. 

62. The army at that time was at a place at some 
distance from Ascalon, where Richard had fixed his 
head-quarters for some time after leaving Darum. 
It was the month of June ; the weather was very 
hot, and the army was dreadfully plagued with 
stinging flies, whose sting brought on an eruption 
almost as bad as leprosy. But the crusaders bore 
this cheerfully as long as they had the hope of 
going soon to besiege Jerusalem. 

63. One day, as Richard was sitting alone in his 
tent, with his eyes fixed on the ground, one of his 
chaplains, named William, saw him, and felt so sorry 
to see the king in such trouble of mind, that he 
began to weep bitterly, but dared not speak. The 



BICHARD I. 39 

king, observmg him, said, ' What is the matter, Mr. 
Chaplain ? Have it out, I insist of you, and let me 
know the cause of all this weeping, if it has anything 
to do with me.' The chaplain humbly answered, * Not 
unless your excellency will promise not to be angry 
with me.' The king promised ; and then the chap- 
lain made him a long speech, in which he told him 
that if he should now give up the conquest of the 
Holy Land, because of the uncertain rumours which 
had reached him from England, his good name would 
be stained for ever. He reminded him of all the 
great things God had done for him, how he had been 
victorious everywhere, and how the Turks trembled 
before him. He told him that he was the father of 
the whole army, the defence of Christendom, and 
that to desert the army now, would be to leave it ex- 
posed to its enemies. 

64. The king listened attentively to the chap- 
lain's speech, and did not say a word. But he 
weighed what had been said in his mind, and took a 
fresh resolve. The next day the army returned to 
Ascalon, and everybody expected that the king 
would soon depart. But to the joy of the whole 
army it was announced by a herald that King 
Bichard would stay in the Holy Laad till Easter at 
least, and that everyone must get ready for the 
siege of Jerusalem. At this news everyone gave 
thanks to Grod that now at last they were going to 
see the blesaed city, and all began to get ready at 
once, 



40 BIOHARD I. 

The Second March towards Jemsalem. 

66. On the morning of June 7, 1192, the march 
began. The host was large, and in splendid array. 
The richer crusaders lent horses to the poorer, to 
carry themselves and their baggage, and only the 
infantry, consisting of strong young men, marched 
on foot. When they got to a place only four hours' 
journey from Jerusalem, they were kept waiting a 
month for some other crusaders who were wasting 
their time at Acre. One day, when Eichard went 
out to chase some Turks who were lying in wait for 
the pilgrims, he went so far over the hills that lie 
came within sight of Jerusalem. There is a story 
told, which perhaps belongs to this march, that when 
Jerusalem was pointed out to him, Eichard covered 
his face with his mail-coat, and said, ^ good Lord 
Grod, suflFer me not to see thy holy city, since I 
cannot deliver it from thine enemies ! ' For already 
Eichard began to see that the conquest of Jerusalem 
was impossible. 

66. The pilgrims had been nearly a month wait- 
ing in one place, and began to get impatient. * Why 
don't we go to Jerusalem? What are we wait- 
ing here for ? ' was heard on all sides. Then the 
king held a council of chiefs. The French urged 
that he should march at once upon Jerusalem, but 
Eichard refused. He was willing to go with them 
as a pilgrinoi, he said ; but he would not lead them 
in an expedition which he thought so unwise. They 
had to trust for food to the supplies which were sent 
up from the sea-coast ; but to make sure that these 



EIOHAED I. 41 

supplies should come constantly, it would be neces- 
sary to guard the roads; and the army was not 
strong enough to divide, so that one part should 
attack Jerusalem and another guard roads. Besides 
this, he spoke of the want of water, especially at 
Jerusalem, which lies among the hills, where all the 
water is dried up during the summer months. The 
Turks had stopped up all the wells within two miles 
of Jerusalem, and it would be madness to expose the 
army to the risk of besieging Jerusalem without 
having any water to driak. He said that the French 
only urged his going to Jerusalem because they 
wished him to attempt an impossible thing, and 
then bring upon himself the shame of failure. 

67. Then twenty jurors were chosen from all 
sides to decide the matter. They decided that the 
best thing to do would be to undertake an expedition 
to Egypt. The French would not hear of this, but 
insisted that the army should go on to Jerusalem. 
A council of ways and means was called, and every 
one was asked what he could bring, either in men or 
money, towards the siege. While matters were thus 
being talked over, news was brought to Richard by 
some of his spies that a Turkish caravan was coming 
up from Egypt to Jerusalem, and that if he made 
haste, he might seize it on the way. 

Richard seizes the Turkish Caravan. 

68. In the East, the roads are so unsafe that 
merchants who have valuable goods to carry always 
travel together in large parties, which are called 



42 RICHARD I. 

caravans. In time of war the caravan is protected 
by an escort of soldiers. Eichard was delighted at 
the chance of falling upon this caravan, which was a 
very large one, laden with all sorts of rich things, 
and he forthwith asked the French to come with 
him to attack it. This they agreed to do, on con- 
dition that they should have a third part of the 
booty. Though it was evening, they set off at once, 
and marched all night, by the splendid moonlight of 
the East, till they reached a place where they rested 
a little while, and sent to Asealon for provisions. 
But meanwhile a Turkish spy had sent word to 
Saladin what Eichard was about, and Saladin at once 
sent fifty of his best soldiers to defend the caravan^ 

69. While Eichard and his army were waiting, a 
spy came and told him that a part of the caravan had 
gone round by a place called the Eound Cistern, 
and told him to make all haste and fall upon it, for 
if he could take it he would win great booty. But 
because this spy was a native of Palestine, and the 
natives there do all tell lies so much, Eichard did 
not know whether to believe him or not ; so he sent 
out some other scouts, to see if the thing were true. 
They brought word that it was. Meanwhile, some 
time had been lost, and the Turks who were with 
the caravan had got word that Eichard was after 
them, so they prepared to move off. But by march- 
ing all night, and making great haste, Eichard got 
up to them before it was dawn. 

70. He sent on his archers and cross-bowmen to 
hinder their start, and he followed with the main body. 
He himself was in front, and the French in the rear. 



BICHABB I. 43 

The Turks drew themselves up on the slope of a hill 
in good order, but with rather less swagger than 
usual. The king and his host fell upon them with 
such a violent charge that they were scattered at 
once. The king's men fought splendidly, and so 
did the French ; but as for King Richard, there was 
none Uke him. His ashen spear was broken at last by 
repeated blows, and fell into bloody bits; then with 
his drawn sword he hewed everything down before 
him, splitting men's heads down to the teeth with 
one blow. The Turks being vanquished, the caravan 
fell into Richard's power. There were more than 
four thousand camels, and nearly as many mules and 
asses, richly laden with gold, silver, silks, spices, 
sugar, and provisions. Richard carried all this wealth 
back to the main army, and divided it equally 
between those who had fought and those who 
remained behind. The whole place was so fiill of 
camels and asses, that there was hardly room for 
them. Luckily the crusaders thought the flesh of 
young camels very good to eat, especially with 
bacon. 

The Army returns to Acre, 

71. This splendid booty, however, did not stop 
the grumbling of the pilgrims, because the march to 
Jerusalem was given up. Some of them grumbled 
that the camels ate more oats and barley than they 
were worth, and all were full of bitterness at the 
decision of the leaders to give up the siege of 
Jerusalem, in spite of all the reasons against it. 
They were then only four hours' journey from 



44 BICHAED I. 

Jerusalem, and it was hard indeed to give ap the 
prize for which they had waited so long, and gone 
through 80 much. Slowly and sadly they began the 
return march, and the constant attacks of the Turks 
did not make them any more cheerful. They 
reached Joppa, where very many of them stayed, 
being sick; the rest went on to Acre, bitterly 
sorrowing that so little had been done for the great 
cause for which they had come out. 

72. Bichard, having more than fulfilled his pro- 
mise of staying till Easter, now wished to go honie, 
and to this end he began to treat with Saladin. 
But because Saladin insisted that the waUs of 
Ascalon, which had just been rebuilt with so much 
trouble, must be destroyed, the treaty came to 
nothing just then. . 

Saladin besieges Joppa. 

73. When Saladin heard that Eichard had left 
Joppa, he brought an immense army from Jerusalem 
to besiege it. He set up four stone-bows against the 
town, and two other machines for throwing stones, 
called mangonels. The besieged crusaders defended 
themselves bravely, but there were not many fight- 
ing men in the town, and there were a great many 
sick people, who had been left tiiere on the march 
back from Jerusalem. 

74. The Turks worked away at their stone-bows, 
until at last they broke down one of the gates, and 
a good lei^gth of the wall. A terrible struggle then 
took place, but the Turks won by force of mimbers, 



EICHABD I 45 

and drove the crusaders into the castle of Joppa* 
They then murdered all the sick whom they could 
find in the houses, and plundered the town. Then 
they attacked the castle, and it was soon very plain 
that the castle could not hold out long* So the 
people in the castle sent to Saladin to ask for a 
truce until noon the next day, promising, that if no 
help came by then, they would each pay him ten 
gold pieces. They gave him some of their best men 
as hostages for the fulfilment of this promise. 

75. Richard was just getting ready to leave the 
Holy Land, when messengers came to him firom 
Joppa with the sad news that the Turks had entered 
the town, and were besieging the crusaders in the 
castle, and that, unless help came soon, the castle 
would have to be yielded up. Eichard was not. the 
man to leave his friends in such a plight: he resolved 
to go at once to their help, and called upon the army 
to go with him. The French alone refused, saying 
they would never again go anywh^e with him, but 
all who had any pity for their neighbours made 
haste to go with him. The king set sail for Joppa, 
but contrary winds hindered him for three days, 
and he did not reach Joppa till the night of Friday, 
just before the Saturday on which the truce was 
to end. 

Hichard comes to Joppa. 

76. On the very morning of this Saturday, the 
Turks forced the besieged to begin pajring the money 
before the time agreed upon, and chopped off the 



46 BIOHABD L 

heads of seven men as they were paying. The 
others were seized with horror and fear, and fled 
into the castle, weeping and beating their breasts, 
and expecting nothing but death. When lo! the 
fleet of king Eichard was seen bearing into the 
haven. As soon as the Turks saw the ships of king 
Eichard entering the harbour, they rushed down to 
the shore, to prevent him from landing. There were 
such thousands of them that the shore was covered 
with them, and they sent a rain of darts and arrows 
against the fleet ; they even rode into the water as 
far as their horses could go, to throw their shots witl^ 
more effect. 

77. The king drew his ships together, and ssdd 
to his men, ' Well, my comrades, who have shared 
everything with me, what is to be done now ? Why 
don't we land and drive into this mob on the shore ? 
Do we think our lives more precious than those 
which are perishing because of our absence ? What 
are you thinking about ? ' But some answered that 
it was not much use landing, since it was not likely 
that those in the castle were still alive, and that it 
would be very hard to land in the face of such an 
immense force of the enemy. 

78. While they were saying this, the king was 
looking round with his sharp eyes, and he saw a 
priest throw himself into the sea from the shore, 
and come swimming towards his ship. When he 
had been helped on board, puffing and panting, he 
said, ' glorious king, the few people who are left, 
longing for your coming, are just about to stretch 
out their necks to the swords of their mtirderersi 



mCHAED L 47 

like sheep to the slaughter. They will be dead 
directly, unless they get divine help through you.' 
The king cried, *Are there any living still? and 
where ? ' The priest answered, * They axe huddled 
in that tower, waiting for death,' Then said the 
king, * If it please God, in whose service we have 
come hither, that we should die with our brothers, 
let him die now who will not advance ! ' 

79. Then he ordered his ships to be driven 
towards the land, and he himself plunged into the 
water up to his hips, and thus reached the shore. 
All his men jumped into the sea after him, and 
thus got to land on foot. They rushed upon the 
Turks, who were lining the whole shore : the king 
slew numbers of them with his cross-bow. When 
the Turks saw the king they lost all heart; they 
fled, and were pursued by the king and his knights, 
till the shore was cleared of them. 

80. Eichard then entered the town, which he 
found full of Turks, who were still plundering the 
houses. He at once hoisted his banners on the 
walls, that the Christians in the castle might take 
courage. They were indeed glad, and took heart to 
sally out of the castle, and join the king in driving 
the Turks out of the town. This was soon done, 
and a great slaughter was made of the enemy. The 
king was not able to pursue them far, because he 
had only three horses. When the Turks saw the 
king's banners advancing out of the city, they were 
struck with panic. Even Saladin himself took 
fright, and he broke up his camp, and fled like a 
hare* The king's archers followed the Turks for 



48 KICHABD L 

more than two miles, killing numbers of their 
horses. Richard pitched his tents on the very spot 
where the camp of Saladin had been. 

Pigs, Turks, and Christians. 

81. The Turks had not only killed all the sick 
Christians in Joppa, they had also killed all the pigs. 
No Turk, nor anyone who follows the religion of 
Mahommed, will taste pork, and the pig is an 
abomination to them. So, as an insult to the 
Christians whom they had killed, the Turks had 
thrown their bodies along with those of the pigs. 
The crusaders, therefore, when they got back to the 
city of Joppa, had to make a fresh arrangement: they 
carefully sorted the Christians from the pigs, and 
buried their bodies decently, but the bodies of the 
Turks they threw with those of the pigs. When 
this important work was done, they set about mending 
the breach in the walls of Joppa, and repaired it as 
well as they could without mortar. Soon after this, 
Richard's nephew. Count Henry, arrived with fifty- 
five knights and 2,000 infantry, but only fifteen 
horses. 

82. The Turks meanwhile felt very much dis- 
gusted and vexed with their defeat, seeing that the 
king's force was so small, and that he had put them 
to flight without any horsemen. They felt it would 
be a disgrace to them for ever, unless they did some- 
thing to wipe it out. So they made a plan to sur- 
prise Richard in his tent by night, and take him 
prisoner. 



BIOHABD I. 49 

The Turks surprise Biohard*s Camp. 

83. One moonlight night, two chosen bodies of 
the finest Turkish soldiers came stealing towards the 
camp of Eichard, hoping to take him by surprise. 
Luckily they quarrelled among themselves on the 
way, as they could not agree which of the division 
should dismount from. their horses to seize the king* 
This quarrel made them lose a great deal of time, so 
that it was dawn when they drew near the camp. 
Now it happened that a certain Genoese was taking 
an early walk in the fields at dawn, and he heard 
the noise of the horses* feet, and saw the helmets 
glittering. He ran quickly back to the camp, and 
gave the alarm. The king sprang out of bed and 
put on his coat of mail ; all the rest armed them- 
selves as quickly as they could, though in the hurry 
some of them had not time to put on their greaves, 
but fought all day without them. Some of them 
even were only half-dressed. 

84. King Eichard however did not lose his head 
in this hurry. He had very few horses, only enough 
to mount himself and a few chosen knights. He 
made his men kneel on one knee, with their shields 
in their left hands covering their bodies, and their 
lances in their right hands, having the ends of the 
shafts fixed firmly in the ground, and the points 
turned to the foe. Between every two of these men, 
and covered by their shields, he placed a cross- 
bowman, and another man by him, whose duty it 
was to keep the cross-bow filled with darts, so that 
one drew the bow and t]\e other constantly loaded. 

ST. n. E 



60 RICHARD I 

it. This arrangement was of great service to the 
Christians, and did great damage to the foe. Having 
put everything in order, the king went about among 
his troops, trying to keep up their spirits. 'A 
manly soul can bear any kind of fortune,' he said ; 
* troubles are like a candle to virtues, they cause 
them to be seen, while too much good luck over- 
shadows them. Besides, it is no use to fly. The 
enemy holds every side ; flight is certain death. So 
hold out, and either triumph mightily or d'e 
gloriously.' ..ru^ 

The Battle of Joppa. 

85. He had scarcely ended his speech when the 
army of the enemy came up, with a horrid clamour 
and howling. It was drawn up in seven divisions, 
each consisting of about a thousand horse. The 
crusaders received the charge like a rock, and did 
not give an inch, or the Turks would have ridden 
through them. The first division of the Turks, 
having charged, drew rein before they got up to the 
spears of the Christians, and turned aside. The 
cross-bowmen sent a shower of darts after them, which 
killed many men and horses. Then the next 
division came up, and in like manner swerved from 
the charge. So did all the other divisions, coming 
up like the whirlwind, then swiftly and suddenly 
swerving in another direction. The king got tired 
of this, and he with his few horsemen charged with 
lance in rest upon the last division as it was re- 
treating, overthrowing men right and left. They 
out through the whole Turkish force, and got bacfe 



•EICHARD I. 51 

in safety ; the king rescued with his own hands two 
of his knights who had been unhorsed by the Turks. 

88. King Eichard this day outdid in prowess all 
the heroes of romance. He wore through the skin 
of his own hand with constantly swinging his sword. 
While he was thus in the midst of the conflict, the 
brother of Saladin, with strange politeness, sent him 
three splendid Arab horses, begging that he would 
use them, as he seemed to need them. The king 
was very glad of the gift, and said he would willingly 
have accepted more in such need, even from a worse 
foe than the Sultan's brother. 

87. But the battle went on, and lasted all the 
rest of that day. The Christian sailcwrs fled to their 
ships ; they were the only ones who tried to save 
themselves by flight. Meanwhile some of the Turks 
got into the town ; the king hastened thither with 
a body of archers, slew all he could find, and shut up 
the rest inside the town. Then he went to the shore, 
and fetched back the crusaders who had run away. 
He returned to the battle, and charged the enemy 
with such fury that he was lost in their ranks. The 
Christian army could see nothing of him, and began 
to be fiiU of terror. He in the meantime was splitting 
heads in his usual way ; he cut off at one blow the 
head, shoulder, and arm of a grand Turkish emir 
who was riding against him. The Turks were so 
cowed by his valour that they gave way on all sides, 
and scarcely cared to send arrows at him any more. 
So he returned safely to his army out of the depths 
of the hostile ranks. His coat of mail was stuck so 
fall of darts that he looked like a hedgehog, and his 

?3 



52 BIOHAJRD I. 

horse likewise was a perfect pincushion of arrows, 
Thi« last charge, of Bichard's decided the day. It is 
said that while 700 Turks were kiEed, only two of 
the Christians were killed. It was certainly one of 
the most brilliant victories that Eichard ever won^ and 
it was the last that he won in the Hojy Land. 

Bichard makes a Truce with Saladin. 

88. From the fatigues of this battle, and the bad 
air of the plax^e, Richard fell ill. Saladin sent word 
to him that he was coming to seize him if he dared 
to wait for him ; Richard made answer that he would 
certainly wait for him, and that he would not yield 
an inch as long as he could fight on his feet, or even 
on his knees. But feeling that his illness was getting 
worse, he sent his nephew, Count Henry, to ask some 
of the French to come and help him to defend th^ 
Holy Land, since he was ill. But the French utterly 
.refused. 

89. In this strait, Richard saw no other course 
open to him but to make a truce with Saladin. He 
was wanted in his own kingdom, and the affairs of 
the Holy Land were hopeless. So he made a truce 
for three years ; he promised to pull down the walls 
of Ascalon, but Joppa was to be held by the 
Christians, and the pilgrims were to be allowed freely 
to visit the Holy Grave at Jerusalem. Richard took 
a spiteful revenge on the French who were still at 
Acre, by warning the Turks not to let them visit 
Jerusalem. They went hojne to their own country 
very angry. 



RICHAED I. 63 

Bicliard leaves the Holy Land. 

90. Eichard now got ready to leave Palestine. 
It is pleasing to know that he paid all his bills before 
he went away. Nor did he forget to ransom William 
des Preaux, who had saved his life out of the hands 
of the Turks. He never seems to have cared very 
much for the company of his queen Berengaria, and he 
now sent her on in another ship, with his sister, 
queen Joanna. When he set sail, there was great 
sorrow and mourning among those who were left 
behind, who felt that the Holy Land was losing its 
best defender. On the second day of the voyage, as 
the Holy Land was going out of sight, Sichard gazed 
for a long time at the shore, and at last said, * 
Holy Land, I commend thee to Grod, and may He 
grant me of His grace to live long enough to come 
to thy help in His " good time, for I hope and 
intend to help thee some day.' And then he bade 
the sailors hasten from the shore. 



Bicliard'8 Homeward Journey. 

91. After Richard and the few of his people wh 
were with him had been driven about on the sea by 
storms for six weeks, he heard that many of the 
princes whose lands he would have to pass through 
were lying in wait to catch him on his way home. 
For Richard had made many enemies while he was 
in the Holy Land, through his pride. So he thought 
he would go secretly through Germany, and he tried 
to sail up the Adriatic Gulf. But just as he had 



64 RIQHABD I. 

reached the isle of Corfii, two pirate ships attacked 
him. Luckily they turned out to be firiends of the 
king's pilot, and the king himself made firiends with 
them. And as he very much admired their boldness 
and hardihood, he went with them in their ship, with 
a very few of his own company, among whom was a 
certain chaplain who afterwards told of all that 
happened. 

92. They landed at a town on the coast of the 
Adriatic. As soon as they had landed, they sent a 
messenger to the nearest castle, asking peace and 
safe-conduct firom the lord of that province, who was 
a nephew of the Duke of Austria. The duke was a 
brother-in-law of the emperor of Cyprus; he had 
been in the Holy Land, and Bichard had quarrelled 
with him there, having torn down his banner firom 
the walls of Acre. By this messenger Bichard sent 
to the lord of the castle a golden ring, in which was 
set a most splendid ruby which he had bought on 
his voyage. Then the lord of the castle asked the 
messenger who they were who were asking safe- 
conduct, and he answered that they were pilgrims 
coming back firom Jerusalem. Then he asked their 
names. And the messenger said, ^ One of them is 
called Baldwin, but the one who sent you the ring is 
called Hugh the Merchant.' Then the lord looked 
at the ring again and said, ^ No, he is not called 
Hugh the Merchant, but king Bichard,' and he added, 
^ though I have sworn that I would catch all pilgrims 
coming firom those parts, and would not take any 
gift to let them off, nevertheless for the sake of this 
splendid gift, and for him who has sent it me, who 



BICHAED I. 65 

thus honours an unknown man, I will both send back 
the gift and give him leave to depart*' 

93. The messenger went back, and told all this 
to the king. Then with much fear, in the middle of 
the night, they secretly went out of the town on 
horseback, and for a long while went on their journey 
in peace. But the lord of the castle had in the 
meantime secretly sent word to his brother, whose 
name was Count Frederick, that he should seize the 
king as soon as he came into his land. So as soon 
as the king reached a city which belonged to this 
Frederick, the count sent a certain Norman named 
Eoger, who had been with him twenty years, and 
told him to watch carefiilly all the houses where 
pilgrims put up for the night, to see if he could find 
out the king ; and promised that he would give him 
half that city if he could catch the king. Then 
Soger searched every inn, until at last he found out 
Bichard, but instead of taking him prisoner, he 
begged him with tears to flee, and gave him a very 
good horse. Then going back to his lord, he told 
him that what had been said about the king's coming 
was all nonsense, for it was only one Baldwin and his 
friends who were coming back from pilgrimage. 
But the lord in a rage ordered them all to be seized. 

m 

Kichard is taken Prisoner. 

94. Meanwhile the king secretly left the city 
with one knight and a boy who understood the 
German tongue, and for three days and nights they 
wandered about without food. Then, driven by 



56 RIOHAED I. 

Kunger, they turned into a certain town in Austria, 
where, as ill-luek would have it, the duke of Austria 
himself was then staying. The king's boy went to 
change money, but because he showed his money too 
freely, and behaved rather too grandly, he was taken 
up by the citizens. On being asked who he was, 
he said that he was the servant of a certain rich 
merchant who was coming to the city in three days. 
Then the citizens let him go, and he went back to 
the king's hiding place, and told him all that had 
happened, begging him to flee with all speed. But 
the king was so tired with tossing about on the sea, 
that he wished to rest in that city for some days, 
and since the boy was often sent to the public market 
to buy things, it happened one day that he had 
stack the king's gloves in his girdle. And the 
magistrates of the city seeing them, seized the boy, 
and tortured him dreadfully in all sorts of ways, 
threatening him at last that they would cut out his 
tongue if he did not tell the truth at once. So the 
poor boy was overcome by pain, and told them all. 
Then they told the duke, and went and surrounded 
the house where the king was hiding, and called on 
him loudly to give himself up. 

96. The king was not afraid when he heard their 
barbarous voices, but knowing that he should not be 
able to defend himself against so many, he called for 
the duke to come, saying that he would jdeld himself 
up to him atlone. And when the duke came, the 
king advanced to meet him, and gave up himself and 
his sword to him* The duke being very glad, treated 
tbe king honourably, but put him in very strict 



RIOHABI) I. 57 

guard, with soldiers who were to watch him day and 
night with drawn swords. King Bichard would 
never have treated Saladin himself so, had he fallen 
into his hands. And afterwards, when the duke of 
Austria gave Richard over to the emperor Henry, he 
was still watched night and day by soldiers fully 
armed, and they walked round his bed at night, and 
none of his own followers were allowed to sleep with 
him. But none of these things upset Eichard's 
temper; he was always as merry and pleasant in 
words as he was fierce and daring in deeds. Some- 
times he mocked and teased his guards, sometimes 
he made them tipsy for fun, and sometimes he had 
wrestling matches with them. 

Bichard's Captivity. 

98. When the news was spread in Europe that 
Richard, king of England, was a prisoner in the 
hands of the emperor, everybody was sorry, for 
Richard was a great hero in most people's eyes, 
because he had fought so bravely for the cause of 
the cross in the Holy Land. Many tales and songs 
were made about Richard in his captivity in later 
times; and one of these tales was, that while 
Richard was in prison one of his favourite minstrels 
named Blondel determined to find out where he was. 
He wandered about Germany for some time, till he 
heard that in a certain castle a prisoner of high 
rank was kept. He crept under the tower where 
' the prisoner's room was, and sang aloud one of 
Richard's favourite songs. As soon as he had 



58 ,BICHABD L 

finished the first verse, a voice firom mthin the 
tower took up the second verse, and sang on to the 
end* Thus Blondel found out his master, and after- 
wards he hastened back to England, to tell Bichard's 
people where their king was. The story can hardly 
be true; but it seems to be true that Bichard 
himself made songs in the prison, lamenting that 
his friends did not make haste to pay his ransom. 

97. But as soon as his faithful servants in 
England heard that Bichard was a captive, they 
sent some trusty men to seek him out. Bichard 
was very glad to see them, and asked how every- 
thing was going on in England. He complained 
very much of his brother John, who had caused a 
great deal of trouble in England while he had been 
away, and who was even now making plots against 
his brother with the king of France. But he added 
in a more cheerful tone, ^ My brother John is not the 
man to win a country for himself by force, if there 
is anyone with the least force to withstand him.' 

98. Bichard was then on his way to the emperor, 
before whom he had to stand on trial to answer all 
sorts of charges which were brought against him, 
especially the charge that he had caused Conrad of 
Montferrat, the man whom king Philip wanted to 
make king of Jerusalem, to be murdered. Bichard 
could speak very well ; and he made such a good 
speech in his own defence, answering every charge 
by itself so clearly and strongly, and with such 
eloquence and feeling, that even the duke of 

nstria wept, and the emperor rose from his throne, 
i ran to embrace the king of England. From that 



BICHAKD I. 59 

day the emperor treated him with great honour, and 
there was no more talk of the charges againt him. 
But none the less did the emperor ask a very heavy 
ransom for him, 100,000 marks. 

Philip invades Normandy. 

99. Meanwhile there were two people who were 
very glad indeed that Bichard was in prison, his 
brother John, and Philip, king of France. John 
came to England and tried to get the kingdom for 
himself, saying that his brother was dead. But the 
Justiciars and others in whose care Bichard had 
placed the kingdom, would not listen to John, but 
attacked him; and they set a guard at all the 
havens so that he might get no help from France. 
Philip, king of France, entered Normandy, and 
through the treachery of one of Bichard's officers he 
got hold of the important castle of Gisors, which 
was the key of Normandy. Then he came to Bouen, 
which is the chief city of Normandy, and sent in 
a message to the citizens saying that John had 
become his vassal for England, and had given up to 
him Normandy and all his lands in France ; so he 
wished now to take possession of the chief city of 
Normandy. The citizens, who were true to Bichard, 
answered: *The gates are open; come in if you 
like ; nobody is hindering you.' Philip thought it 
better not to come in, but went away in a hurry, 
burning his engines and breaking all his wine-bottles. 
But he sent word to the citizens that he would visit 
them with a rod of iron. 



60 RICHARD I. 

Bicliard u set free. 

100. It was a great business to raise the great 
ransom which the emperor asked for Richard. 
Everybody in England had to give a fourth of their 
income for one year, and a fourth of all their goods ; 
the monasteries which kept sheep had to give all 
their wool for one year, and the churches had to 
give all their gold and silver. 

101. The emperor was such a mean man that 
not only did he raise the sum asked for the ransom 
from 100,000 marks to 150,000, equal to 100,000i., 
but when Philip and John ofiFered him large sums of 
money if he would keep Eichard in prison, he was 
not ashamed to show their letters to Richard as a 
means of getting even more money from him if 
possible. The king began almost to despair of ever 
being set free. But the emperor's own councillors 
were ashamed of his meanness, and they went boldly 
to him and told him that he must set the king of 
England free at once without any more haggling. 
So Richard was set free, after he had been a cap- 
tive for more than a year. His mother came to 
Germany to meet him. His return to England 
was like a triumph; London was richly decked 
out to receive him, and the Grerman nobles 
who were with him wondered at the wealth of the 
people. 

102. But Richard found his kingdom very much 
Upset. He had given his brother John too many 
castles in England, and these castles were now 



RICHAED I. 61 

holding out against himself. He had to go at once 
to besiege Nottingham, which John's followers were 
bjolding against him. It was a pleasure to hiTn to 
handle his cro|SS-bow again, and play the game of 
war which be loved so well. But the garrison did 
not hold out long when they found king Eichard 
had really come back; they gave themselves up 
without any terms to the king's mercy. Before he 
left Nottingham Eichard went out to see the great 
forest of Sherwood, which he had never seen before, 
and he was greatly pleased with it. 

108. Eichard only stayed in England two months. 
Hitherto we have been hearing chiefly about Eichard 
as a crusader, the part which he could play best. 
As a king, perhaps the less we say about him the 
better. He seems tq have had but one thought 
about his kingdom of England, how much money he 
could squeezQ out of it. During the latter part of 
his reign, when he was constantly needing money 
for his wars with France, as well as to complete the 
payment of his ransom, he taxed England very 
heavily indeed. The burthen was felt very much 
by all classes, and a rebellion took place in London 
because the poorer citizens were more heavily taxed 
than the richer. Happily, Eichard had chosen 
ministers who kept good order in England, and 
though the pressure of the taxes was very sore, yet 
Eichard was so popular that the people bore what 
came from him more willingly than they would 
havt borne lighter evils from a king who had not 
won the name and fame of the Lion-heart. 



62 BICHABD L 

Biohard goes to fight Philip. 

104. When Philip of France heard that Eichard 
was set free, he sent word to John that he must 
take care of himself, for the devil was now nnchained. 
And as soon as Bichard had put things right in 
England, he hastened to France to settle matters 
with his brother and the king of France. When 
he got to Portsmouth the wind was blowing so hard 
that the sailors advised him not to cross; but he 
would not listen to them and set forth upon the sea. 
After being tossed about by the storm all night, the 
next morning he had to land on the Isle of Wight 
and to wait at Portsmouth for better weather. 

106. When at last he got to France, his brother 
John thought it the wisest course to make peace 
with him at once. Richard was even too forgiving 
with this brother, who had been so mischievous. 
The very next year he gave him back all his land?, 
though he had the wisdom this time to keep the 
castles in his own hands. 

106. Richard's business now was to get back 
Grisors, the key of Normandy, from the king of 
France. There was nothing Richard enjoyed more 
than a war of this sort. As one of the poets of his 
own time sang, * Now the gay season is come again, 
when the king again appears, storms castles, and 
captures his enemies, when the field is bright with 
many-coloured tents, when the banners flutter, the 
lances break, and shield and helmet ring.' This 
war with Philip, broken only by short truces, lasted 
for the rest of Richard's life. 



EICHAED I. 63 

107. Philip was in some respects a cleverer man 
than Sichard, but he was not such a good soldier. 
Once Eichard had made an appointment to fight 
with him at a certain place, but in the morning the 
king of France, instead of coming up to the battle, 
fled with all his army. In the flight he lost his 
treasure, and had a very narrow escape of being 
taken prisoner himself. He had turned aside into a 
church, a long way from the road, to hear mass, 
when the king of England, on a very swift horse, 
actually rode past, thirsting to catch him. But 
Bichard missed his man, and returned to his camp 
with a great booty and many prisoners. 

Bichard builds the Jolly Castle. 

108. Still Eichard could not get Gisors again. 
So in order that it might no longer be the key of 
Normandy, he built another castle on the river 
Seine, on a rock that jutted out into the river, in 
such a position that it was almost impossible that it 
should ever be taken by the enemy. This castle he 
called the Jolly Castle (Chateau G-aillard), because 
in it he could laugh at Philip ; and there he most 
often took up his quarters when he was in Normandy. 
The Jolly Castle was now the key of Normandy. 

109. John was now fighting on his brother 
Bichard's side, and he had the good luck to take 
prisoner a certain warlike bishop who was riding out 
against him in fall armour. The pope wrote to 
Bichard to beg for the release of the bishop, whom 
he called his son, according to custom. Bichard sent 



64 BICHAKD I. 

him the bishop's coat of mail, with the words of 
Joseph's brethren to their fisither, * Know whether 
this be thy son's coat or not.' 

110, On the whole, Eichard had the advantage 
in the war. He took many castles belonging to the 
king of France. . What was more, he made a league 
against Philip with some of Philip's own nobles, and 
he got his nephew to be chosen emperor in Grermany 
when the old emperor died. Philip came with a 
large army to get back one of his castles, called 
Courcelles. Bichard went out to meet him, and a 
battle was fought between Courcelles and Crisors. 
The king of France was defeated and fled for his 
life to Gisors. Such a crowd of Frenchmen pressed 
over the bridge of Gisors, that the bridge broke, and 
the king of France fell into the river Epte. Twenty 
of his knights were drowned, and he was very nearly 
drowned himself. Thus did king Philip, as Bichard 
said in his letter home, * drink of the waters of the 
Epte.' In this battle king Bichard took three 
knights prisoners with his own hand. This was not 
the only time that Philip had to flee before Bichard. 
But it was a cruel war; such hatred grew up 
between the English and the French, that they 
used to blind the prisoners who were taken on 
either side. The king of France used to ravage 
parts of Normandy with fire and sword, and Bichard 
did the same across the French border. Think how 
the poor country people must have sufifered in such 
a war. 

111. The pope and the bishops tried to make 
neace between the two kings, for they felt that such 



RICHARD I. 65 

a war between the two chief kings of Europe was a 
disgrace to Christendom. The kings of France and 
England met to speak to one another, for the last 
time, as it happened. Bichard was in a boat on the 
river Seine, while Philip sat on horseback on the 
shore. They made a truce for five years, in the year 
1199. 

Bichard besieges the Castle of Chaluz. 

112. Eichard chose this time of truce to move 
his army against a certain lord, who had rebelled 
against him during the war, and had taken sides 
with Philip. Some say that this noble had found a 
treasure of great price in his land, which the king 
ordered to be given up to him; and because the 
lord refused, the king's wrath was kindled against 
him. It was the season of Lent, but this did not 
hinder the king from laying waste the lands of the 
viscount with fire and sword, till he came to the 
castle of Chaluz, where he laid siege to the tower 
and fiercely attacked it for three days, commanding 
his sappers that they should dig under the tower 
and ruin it from below, which was afterwards done. 
There were no soldiers at all in the castle except the 
household of the noble, who vainly waited for help 
from their master, for they were not aware that 
the king himself was besieging them, but thought 
it was only his followers. 

118. While the sappers were digging, the king 
himself attacked the castle so fiercely with his 
archers, that no one dared to appeax on the battle- 
ments. Sometimes, however, the besieged threw 

ST. II. F 



66 KICHARD I. 

great big stones from the tops of the towers, which 
frightened all the bystanders ; but thiiE^^ did not 
hinder the sappers from going on with their work, 
as their work itself sheltered them. When the 
third day was drawing towards evening, the king 
went out after dinner, unarmed, except with an iron 
cap, and in his usual way he and his followers 
attacked the besieged with darts and arrows. Now 
there was a certain armed man, who had been 
standing all the forenoon in a turret of the castle, 
and had escaped unhurt of all the darts and arrows 
by reason of his shield, but had carefully watched all 
the besiegers. Just at that time he came again and 
bent his bow and sent an arrow against the king, 
beholding him with a shout. It struck the king on 
the left shoulder near the neck, and plunged deeply 
into the back and the left side, making a curving 
wound, because the king did not stoop enough 
behind the square shield which was carried before 
him. 

Death of Bichard I. 

114. The king, who was always wonderfully hardy, 
did not utter a sigh or a groan, nor show the least 
pain in his face or his gestures, lest he should make 
his own people sad or afraid, and the enemies should 
be all the bolder because of the wound which they 
had given him. But just as if he were suffering 
nothing, he went quietly into his tent, which was 
near, so that many people did not know he was 
wdunded at all. He tried to draw out the arrow 
from his bv-^dy, and broke the wooden shaft, but the 



RICHARD I. 67 

iron point, which was a palm long, remained fixed in 
his flesh. Then the surgeons made things much 
i^orse by their clumsy treatment. They put on 
ointments and plaisters, but soon the wound began 
to turn black, and to swell more and more from day 
to day. At last it threatened to be fatal, especially 
as the king would not take care of himself, and paid 
no heed to his doctor's orders. 

115. Everyone was forbidden to go into his sick- 
room, except four of his noblest followers, who were 
allowed freely to visit him, lest the report of his 
sickness should be spread abroad. The king, being 
uncertain whether he should ever get well, wrote to 
ask his mother to come to him. He prepared for his 
death by taking the Holy Sacrament, having first con- 
fessed to his chaplain. It is said that out of reverence 
to the Sacrament he abstained for seven days from 
taking it, because he bore a deadly .hatred in his 
heart to the King of France. 

116. He caused Bertrand de Gurdun, the man 
who had wounded him, to be brought before him, 
and asked him, ' What wrong have I done you, that 
you have killed me ? ' Bertrand answered, * You 
killed my father and my two brothers with your own 
hand, and now you wished to kill me. Take what 
vengeance on me you like ; I will willingly suffer the 
greatest torments, since I have killed you, a man 
who has brought so many evils on the world.' Then 
the king said, * I forgive you my death ; ' and he 
ordered him to be set free, and a hundred shillings of 
English money to be given him. But the captain of 

F 2 



68 BICHABD I. 

Eichard's troops put him to a cruel death after 
Bichard was dead. 

117. On the eleventh day after he had received 
his wound, as the day was closing, Bichard also 
closed his last day. They bore his body to the nuns 
of Fontevrault, and laid it beside his father's, with 
royal honours. 

118. Such was the death of Bichard the Lion- 
heart. One cannot read his history without seeing 
that he had the making of a fine fellow in him ; but 
he had also such faults that it would have needed a 
very wise education to make him into a real hero, 
and poor Bichard never had such an education. He 
grew up, learning only to do what pleased him- 
self, and to think of no duties but those of a soldier. 
So he lived a life that was of little use to the world, 
and his many fine gifts have not been able to place 
his name amongst those kings to whom England 
looks back with honour and thankfulness. 



EDWABD I. 



1. Edward I. was a very different king to Richard I. 
It is not such a very fine thing, after all, to be a great 
splitter of heads ; but it is a very fine thing to make 
good laws, by which life is made happier and better 
for a whole nation. This was what Edward did. He 
too was a great warrior ; perhaps he was even too 
fond of war and warlike sports ; but he was not 
only a great warrior, he was something much higher, 
a great lawgiver, a great statesman, and a king who 
really cared for the well-being of the country he had 
to govern. He was one of the best and greatest kings 
that England ever had. As a man, he was truthful 
in word and deed ; he was a good son, a good husband, 
and a kind father. His chief faults were wilfulness 
and a hot temper, which grew worse as he grew older. 
These faults led him to do many wrong things, of 
which you will hear. 

2. Edward had a noble figure, taller by a head 
and shoulders than most men ; his hair was very fair 
when he was a child, but grew darker as he grew 
older ; his forehead was broad, and his face handsome, 



70 EDWARD I. 

except that, like Hs father, Henry III,, one eyelid 
drooped lower than the other. He stammered a little 
when he epoke, but this did not prevent hi'Tn from 




being a very good and powerful speaker. Hie limbs 
■fere strong and active, and no one was more skilful 



EDWAED I. 



than he in tLe use of weapons. From the length of 
his legs he got the nickname of Longshanks. 



John and Henry m. 

3. Two kings had reigned between Bichard I. and 
Edwardl. FiratRichard'a brother John, then John'Bson 
Henry III., who was Edward's father. John was called 




by the men of his time the worst man in the world. 
He could be both aolive and clever when he chose, but 



72 KDWARD I. 

he more often chose to be stupid aad lazy. Through 
his laziness he lost some of the most splendid 
provinces which the English held in France, Nor- 
mandy, Maine, Anjou, and Touraine, which the cun- 
ning King Philip of France took from him. 

4. Edward's &ther, Henry III., was not a bad 
man, but he was a very weak and unworthy king. 
He lost another fine province to France, Poitou. He 
governed so badly, and broke the laws of the land so 
often, that his barons rose against him. Their 
leader was the Earl of Leicester, Simon de Montfort, 
a very great and wise man. He and the other barons 
made war against the king. Edward was then a very 
young man, and he took sides with his father against 
the barons. He fought against them at the battle 
of Lewes, where Earl Simon was the victor, and 
Edward and his father were taken prisoners. Edward 
was too hasty in this battle. His division was placed 
over against that of the London citizens, and he 
attacked them with such fury that he drove them oflF 
the field. Then he pursued them so far that he was 
quite cut oflF from the rest of the army, which was 
made so much weaker that it was easily conquered. 
But Edward was then only learning the art of war. 

6. Earl Simon was now master of the kingdom of 
England. He thought that thQ country would be 
much better governed if the people had a voice in 
parliament ; so to the second parliament which he 
summoned he called two knight s from each shirie and 
two citizens from each town. But all the barons did 
not care so much about the people as Earl Simon 
did, but cared only to have power themselves. So 



EDWARD I. 73. 

ixiany of them quarrelled with Earl Simon, and 
began to take the part of the king, who was BtOl a 
prisoner. 

The Battle of Eyesham. 

6. Edward was then kept in guard in the castle 
of Hereford, but he was allowed to ride on horseback 
in a meadow outside the town. One day he got his 
guards to race their horses amongst themselves ; and 
as soon as he saw their horses were tired, he put spurs 
to his own, which was a very good one, and galloped 
oflf. He joined the barons who were making war 
against Earl Simon, and they met Simon and his army 
at Evesham. 

7. King Henry was with Earl Simon, and they 
had just had breakfast in the abbey of Evesham, 
when they saw an army advancing. Earl Simon 
thought at first it was his own son, whom he was ex- 
pecting to join him, but soon he saw the banners of 
Edward. Then he saw two other hosts advancing from 
different quarters, and became aware that he was sur- 
rounded on all sides. When he saw in what good order 
these troops were advancing, he cried, ' By the arm 
of St. James, they come up well ! They did not learn 
that from.themselves, but from me ! Let us commend 
our souls to God, for our bodies are theirs.' Then he 
told his men that those who were willing to die for 
the laws of the land and for justice must get ready 
for battle ; those who wished to save their lives were 
free to go away. The forces of Simon were in fact 
only as two to seven. They gathered themselves 
together in a close band, and fought like heroes* 



74 EDWAKD I. 

None of them would yield. Heniy of Montfort^ 
Simon's son, was killed before his fathei's eyes. The 
old king Henry was in the midst of the battle, and 
would have been killed, but that he called out, ^ I am 
Harry of Winchester ! ' Then the victors knew him, 
and brought him back to the abbey. 

8. Earl Simon grasped his sword with both hands, 
and hewed down everybody before him ; but at last 
he was struck from behind, and killed. ^Thus 
finished his days,' says a writer of that time, ' that 
q>lendid man Earl Simon, who spent not only his 
wealth, but himself, for the defence of the poor, for 
the assertion of justice, and for the rights of the 
realm.' It is said that many years before this battle, 
a certain good bishop, who was a great friend of Earl 
Simon, one day laid his hand on the head of the 
earl's eldest boy, Heniy, and said, * my dearest 
son, you and your father will both die in one day, by 
one and the same death ; but you will die for justice 
and tot truth.' The English people flocked to the 
tomb of Earl Simon, and believed that miracles were 
wrought there, to prove how good a man he had 
been. Edward was very sorry for the death of Henry 
de Montfort, whovhad been his own friend. He went 
himself to his burial, and wept many tears. 

Edward and Adam Oordon. 

9. The war was carried on in a lingering way for 
two years, as the followers of Earl Simon held out in 
different parts of the country. Edward one day met 
'me of these men, namted Adam Gordon, who was 



EBWAKD I. 75 

very femous for his valour. Edward wished to try 
his skill with him, and bidding his followers stand 
oflF, he fought with him alone for a long time. 
Neither of them could get the upper hand, but at 
length Edward, delighted with Adam's valour, told 
him that if he would yield he would give him his life 
and his lands. So Adam yielded, and from that day 
he was ever- very faithful to Edward, and Edward was 
very fond of him. This story shows that king 
Edward had not the vanity of king Eichard, who 
was so vexed when he could not get the better of 
William des Barres. 

10. Although the party of Earl Simon was con- 
quered, nearly all the good things which Simon had 
fought for were gained. Henry was obliged to 
govern better than he had done before ; and since 
Earl Simon's day, the English parliament has gone 
on growing in power, and the common people have 
come to have more and more share in the government 
of the country. 

Edward goes on a Crusade. 

11. When there was no more fighting to be done 
in England, Edward set out on a crusade. The king 
of France, and several other kings, had been fighting 
a crusade in the north of Africa, and had not been 
very lucky, for Louis, king of France, who was one of 
the best kings that France ever had, fell sick and died 
there. When Edward reached Africa, Philip, the 
new king of France, and the other kings, had just 
made a treaty with the enemy, in exchange for a 



76 EDWAKD I. 

large sum of money. Edward was not at all pleased 
with this treaty. 

12. 'What, my dearest lords,' said he; * did we 
not take the cross and come hither in order that we 
might fight the enemies of Christ, and not that we 
might make treaties ? God forbid that we should do 
so now, when the Holy Land is open to us, and we 
can march straight to Jerusalem by land ! ' 

18. The other kings said they had made the 
treaty now, and would not go back from it. They 
would go and winter in Sicily, and then perhaps go 
to the Holy Land afterwards. They oflFered Edward a 
share of the money, but he would not take it, and he 
was so vexed that when the kings made a royal feast 
amongst themselves, he would not go to it, but shut 
himself up. But he was obliged to go with them to 
Sicily for the winter. When the kings had gone on 
board their ships, they had not enough ships to carry 
all their people, but more than two himdred were 
left on the shore, weeping and howling because they 
knew the natives would kill them as soon as the 
kings were gone. The other kings took no heed of 
their cries, but Edward was moved by pity, and 
sending a boat to shore, he took them all off in. his 
own ships. 

14. When they reached one of the havens of 
Sicily, very few of them had time to land before a 
dreadful storm came on, in which many of the ships 
belonging to the other kings were wrecked, all their 
horses were drowned, and the money which they had 
got at Tunis was sunk in the sea. Edward's ships 
alone were quite iminjured, and he did not lose one 



EDWARD I. 77 

man. When the kings saw that their horses, their 
arms, and their treasure, were all swallowed up by 
the sea, they gave up all thought of going to the 
Holy Land, and went home. Edward alone wintered 
in Sicily, and in the spring set sail for Acre, the city 
which had been besieged and taken by his great 
imcle, Eichard I., eighty years before. He reached 
Acre just in time to prevent the Christians who were 
in it from giving it up to the Turks, who were be- 
sieging them. 

Edward is nearly murdered. 

15. Edward won more than one victory over the 

Turks, and soon his fame was spread throughout the 

land. A certain Turkish emir thought it would be a 

good thing if Edward were put out of the way, so in 

order to do this more safely, he sent a messenger to 

him to tell him that he wished to become a Christian. 

The messenger went backwards and forwards several 

times with letters, so that Edward began to have 

confidence in him. The fifth time that he came, Ed- 

ward was sitting on a couch, clad only in a tunic, as it 

was very hot weather ; and after he had read the letters 

brought by the Turk, and was asking questions about 

them, suddenly the man drew a poisoned knife, and 

tried to kill him, but only wounded him in the arm* 

Edward knocked the man down, wrested the knife 

out of his hands, and killed him ; but in the struggle 

he got wounded again in the hand and face, and, 

owing to the knife being poisoned, his wounds inflamed 

very much. 



78 EDWARD I. 

16. For a long time he was very ill, and it was 
feared he would not get better. There was a pretty 
story told in later times that his wife Eleanor saved 
his life by sucking the poison out of the wounds. 
Eleanor was quite the wonaan to do this, but no 
writer of the time tells of it, so it is not Hkely to be 
true. When Edward got better, he found that he 
had very few soldiers left, and that it was useless to 
go on with the crusade, so he made a truce with the 
sultan, and went back to England. On his way 
home he heard of his father's death, by which he 
became king of England (1272). 

The Little Battle of Chalons. 

17. Edward had by this time become very famous 
as a brave and skilful knight, and as he was passing 
through France, the Count of Chalons invited him to 
a tournament. A tournament was one of the great 
amusements of tho^e days : it was a sham fight, in 
which the knights only fojjght for fun, with blunted 
spears, but they sometimes did one another a good 
deal of hurt. In ^ this tournament at Chalons the 
French were fighting, on one side, and the English on 
the other ; they both got angry, and from fighting in 
fun they began to fight in earnest. The Count of 
Chalons seized Edward round the neck and tried to 
pull him off his horse, but Edward stuck firmly ia his 
saddle, and putting spurs to his horse he rode on with 
the count hanging round his neck; and thus the count, 
being pulled out of his saddle, was soon flung to the 
ground. The Frenchmen were very angry at tins, and 
the battle became very fierce, but the English got the 



ISDWAKD I. 79 

upper hand. At last, as the English were acknow- 
ledged to be victors, peace was made; but this 
tournament was ever aftetwards called the Little 
Battle of Chalons. 



Edward's Oood Laws. 

18. One of the first things which Edward did when 
he got back to England was to call a parliament, in 
which he made some very good laws for his people. 
Now laws are very dry things to read about, but you 
must remember that unless there are good laws in 
the land, and unless they are earned out, the people 
will be wretched. Edward made laws to the end 
that right should be done to all, both rich and poor, 
without respect of persons. He would not allow the 
nobles to have too much power over their vassals. 
He was a very dutiful son of the church, but he saw 
that the church was a great deal too rich, for the 
church in his time owned a third of the land of 
England. So he made a law forbidding anyone to 
give any more land to the church ; and he wished 
that the towns should send members to parliament^ 
and that the people of England should have a voice 
in deciding all matters which touched them. So in 
his time the Commons of England grew to be a 
power in the realm* 

Edward's First War with Wales. 

19. One of the things by which Edward showed 
himself to be a great and wise king, was that he did 



80 EDWARD I. 

not care half so much to get hack the lands which 
England had lost in France since the days of 
Richard I., as to unite all Britain under one crown. 
Scotland was then a kingdom by itself, often a 
very troublesome neighbour to England. Wales, 
also, was governed by its own prince, who was only 
subject in name to the king of England. Edward 
saw that as long as there were three separate 
kingdoms in the island, England must be weak. 
So he made plans to join the three kingdoms into 
one. 

20. The turn of Wales came first. A great part 
of Wales had already been conquered by England, 
and Llewelyn, the prince of Wales, had only the 
north part left which he could call his own. When 
Edward was crowned at Westminster, Llewelyn was 
summoned to London, with the ether barons of the 
kingdom, to do homage to the king. Doing homage 
meant that he who did it was the king^s Truing or 
vassal, and held his land from him. For many 
centuries the princes of Wales had always owed 
homage to the kings of England, therefore Llewelyn 
had no reason to refuse. But he did refuse, and 
though the king summoned him three or four times, 
and made it easier for him by going as far as 
Chester, which is on the border of Wales, Llewelyn 
still refused to come, and wrote a very rude letter to 
Edward. About this time Llewelyn was expecting 
his bride, Eleanor de Montfort, who was coming 
over from France to marry him. Eleanor was the 
daughter of the great Earl Simon de Montfort, who 
had made war against the father of Edward L But 



EDWARD I. 81 

the ship in which Eleanor was sailing was caught by 
four English ships which were lying in wait for her, 
and thus Eleanor fell into Edward's hands. Edward 
was kind to her, and gave her to his queen to be 
taken care of. 

21. The next year Edward called together all the 
forces of the kingdom to attack Llewelyn in Wales, 
He divided his army into three troops, and attacked 
Llewelyn on the south, and east, and the north. 
Wales was a very hard country to conquer, because 
it was so full of mountains, forests, and bogs. But 
Edward took care not to get entangled in the moun- 
tains, where many English armies had met with 
disaster. His plan was to surround the Welsh oil 
every side, and slowly to shut them in, till they 
were starved into yielding. His ships sailed along 
the coast, and cut off even the isle of Anglesea from 
Wales. Llewelyn's own brother David served in the 
English army. 

22. Before long Llewelyn had to submit to 
Edward, but the king gave him better terms than 
he might have expected. He allowed him to keep 
the island of Anglesea for his own, and when he caitie 
to London to do homage, he gave him his bride 
Eleanor de Montfort, and made them a splendid 
wedding. 

The Conquest of Wales. 

23. Edward was very kind to Llewelyn ; he sent 
back his hostages, and let him off a large sum of 
money which he was to have paid. Yet in spit6 
of this, four years afterwards, Llewelyn rebelled 

ST. II. G 



82 EDWAKD I. 

against Edward. This time he was joined by his 
brother David, and he also had letters from one or 
two English nobles who did not like the strong rule 
which Edward kept up in England, and who en- 
couraged him by promising that they would help 
him against Edward. He went also to a witch, who 
told him that he should ride crowned through Cheap- 
side in London. The brothers began the war by 
seizing Edward's castles of Hawarden, FUnt, and 
Bhuddlan, and then they went through the border 
country as far as Chester, burning all the villages, 
and killing everyone they could find, even women 
and children ; sometimes they burnt sick people in 
their beds. 

24. Edward quickly gathered an army, not only of 
Englishmen ; he sent to his lands in Gascony for some 
of the brave Basques, who live among higher moun- 
tains than those of Wales, and were therefore very 
skilful in fighting in a mountainous land. He 
brought also a host of workmen to cut down the 
woods which might hinder his march. His ships 
soon conquered the island of Anglesea, and Edward 
said, ' Now Llewelyn has lost the finest feather in 
his tail.' A bridge of boats was laid across the 
Menai Straits. Edward took up his head-quarters 
in Ehuddlan Castle, and step by step his army 
pressed Llewelyn and his brother back into the 
rocky glens of Snowdon. But the golden dragon, 
the king's banner, which was carried before the 
army, was a sign that the king would show mercy 
to those who would yield. 

25. Llewelyn at last left his brother David to 



EDWAKD I. 83 

defend the mountains, while he made a desperate 
sally forth towards the southern land, where he 
hoped that the south Welsh would join him. First 
he harried the lands of a Welshman who had served 
under Edward, and then he went towards the castle 
of Builth, While his troops were holding the bridge 
and the steep slopes of the hill, he went forward, 
alniost alone, to see if the dwellers in those valleys 
were still faithful to him. But the English army 
quickly crossed the river by a ford, and suddenly 
attacked the Welsh. Llewelyn, who had been sleep- 
ing in a bam, was roused by the noise and rushed 
into the battle, and there he was slain. 

26. To fulfil the prophecy of the witch, his head 
was crowned with a garland of silver ivy-leaves, and 
carried on a pike through the streets of London to 
the Tower, where for a long time it was stuck up 
on the battlements, as the ghastly custom of those 
times was. 

Edward entirely subdues Wales. 

27, After the death of Llewelyn, Edward very 
soon became master of the whole of Wales. The 
Earl of Gloucester took Bere, the last castle which 
held out for David, and David himself, after wander- 
ing about in the mountains, was taken in a bog, and 
brought in chains to Edward at Bhuddlan. Edward 
wished to make an example of David, because David 
had been so very treacherous to him ; for as Edward 
said, * I took him when an exile, I nursed him as an 
orphan, I gave him lands out of my own, and I 



Hi EDWARD I. 

placed Iiim nmong tlie lords of mj palace.' David 
had been felse both to his country and to Edward. 
Edward called a parliament to try him, and he was 
sentenced to a cruel death as a traitor. His limbs 
were sent to be exposed in four of the chief towns of 
England, and his head was put beside his brother 
Llewel3Ti'a on the Tower of London. 

28. Edward stayed for more than a year in Wales, 
to put the country in order. He did not act like a 
ruthless victor ; he wasjust and wise in the new laws 
tbat he made, and many of the old laws he kept, 




because he knew that the. Welsh would not like 
everything changed at once. It has been said that 
he killed all the Welsh bards, that is, the men who 
sang songs to their harps, lest they should excite 
the Welsh to rebel ; but this is certainly Hot true, 
Edward brought his queen Eleanor to Caernarvon, 
and there his little son Edward, who was afterwards 
king, was bom. 

29. In the old Welsh days, when a hero died, he 
was buried under a heap of stones, whicli was called 



£DWAKD I. 85 

a cairn ; and everyone who cared about him threw 
another stone upon the cairn to make it bigger. 
Llewelyn and David had no tombs in Wales ; their 
mangled limbs were scattered all over England to be 
the scorn of the English. So the Welsh chose two of 
their grandest hills to be the monuments of the 
last princes of Wales, who had died for the inde- 
pendence of their native land. And these moun- 
tains are called to this day Carnedd Llewelyn and 
Camedd Dafyd, the Cairns of Llewelyn and of David. 
From their windy tops you can look over the isle of 
Anglesea, ' the finest feather in Llewelyn's tail,' and 
the Menai Straits over which Edward carried the 
bridge of boats, and where once part of his army 
met with a sharp defeat from the Welsh; and 
Caernarvon Castle, where the English king of 
Wales was i^orn ; and the rocky glens of Snowdon, 
where the last princes of Wales held out against the 
conqueror. But if the old days of Welsh glory are 
gone by, and Wales has lost her independence, she 
has got a better thing instead ; union in law and 
government with the best-governed country in the 
world. 

Death of the Maid of Norway. 

30. Wales was now conquered, and there seemed 
to be a good hope that Scotland would be joined to 
England without any war or bloodshed. Alexander 
III., king of Scotland, died in 1286 ; his three 
children had all died before him, and none of them 
had left any children except his daughter Margaret, 
who had married the king of Norway, and had left 



86 EDWARD I. 

behind her in Norway a little girl, also called 
Margaret, who was only three years old when her 
grandfather's death made her the heiress of the 
Scotch crown. Edward thought it would be a very 
good thing that his son Edward should marry the 
Maid of Norway, as this little girl was called, and 
that thus the crowns of England and Scotland 
should be joined together. All the chief lords of 
•Scotland thought the same thing ; and so a treaty 
was made, in which all the rights of Scotland were 
well taken care of, and it was promised that Edward 
and Margaret should be married. 

31. Nothing remained but to fetch the little 
Margaret from her father's home in Norway. But 
alas ! the poor little girl came from a very unhealthy 
stock on her mother's side ; she could not bear the 
voyage to Scotland. She fell ill on board ship; 
they landed her on the Orkney Islands in hopes of 
saving her, but she only landed to die. Never was 
the death of a little girl of seven more unlucky. 
Had she lived, and had she and Edward left children 
behind them, the wretched wars which were after- 
wards fought between England and Scotland would 
never have happened ; nor would the bitter hatred 
have grown up which was caused by these unjust 
wars., 

32. When the mournful news came of the death 
of the Maid of Norway, some of the Scotch them- 
selves sent to Edward, and begged him to come to 
Scotland with an army, and settle who should 
succeed to the crown. This was just what Edward 
wanted to do. He wished above everything to be 



EDWARD I. 87 

acknowledged as overlord of Scotland, and he always 
tried to make out that the kings of England had 
ever been overlords of Scotland. This was not 
quite true, though Edward believed it. The truth 
was that the kings of England had been overlords 
of Scotland whenever they were powerful enough to 
make the king of Scotland do homage for his 
kingdom, but that had not been often, and there was 
no right in the matter at all. Whenever the kings 
of Scotland were strong enough to refuse homage^ 
then the kings of England did not ask it. Only 
once had a treaty been made in which the king of 
Scotland declared himself the vassal of the king of 
England, and that treaty had been given up for 
money by Eichard I., as you will remember if you 
have read the first part of this book. 

Death of dueen Eleanor. 

33. Edward was on his way to Scotland to settle 
this business, when his wife queen Eleanor was taken 
ill and died. This was a great grief to Edward, who 
loved her very dearly. Eleanor was a sweet and 
gentle woman, and her influence over her husband 
had always been for good. She was a friend to all the 
poor and oppressed, and she strove to soften her hus- 
band's heart to all on whom his hand weighed heavily. 
Her body was carried to London to be buried, and 
at every place where the coffin rested Edward after- 
wards had beautiful stone or marble crosses built to 
honour her memory. Some of these crosses remain 
to this day. The last was Charing Cross ; Charing U 



88 EDWAED I. 

a word made from Ck^e Reinej which means in 
English dear queen. The name and the spot re^ 
main, but the old cross has long since been pulled 
down. Edward wrote to his best friends to ask them 
to pray for Eleanor's soul. 'I loved her tenderly 
while she was living,' he said ; ' I do not cease to 
love her now she is dead.' But after Eleanor's 
death, when her kind hand was gone, Edward became 
less merciful and less just than he had been before, 
and his temper grew much worse as he grew older. 

Balliol made King of Scotland. 

84. As soon as Edward was able to return to the 
affairs of Scotland, he held a parliament in the 
parish church of Norham on the Scottish border, to 
settle who should be king of Scotland. First he 
asked the assembly to admit that he was overlord of 
Scotland. They were rather startled by this, and 
asked for time. At the end of three weeks, the 
nobles and clergy declared that they acknowledged 
Edward to be overlord of Scotland. The commons 
were more true to their country, and would not 
allow it ; but no notice was taken of them. There 
were no less than twelve nobles who laid claim to 
the Scotch throne, but the chief of them were 
Robert Bruce and John Balliol. After carefully 
hearing all the case, Edward decided that John 
Balliol was the rightful heir to the crown of Scot- 
land. So Balliol was made king; he was crowned 
at Scone on the ancient stone where all the Kings 
of Scotland had been crowned, and he did homage 



EDWAED I. 89 

to Edward as his overlord. Thus the affairs of Scot- 
land seemed to be settled. 



The Dispute with France. 

35. Edward, in wishing to bring all the island of 
Britain under one overlord, was certainly choosing 
the best way to make England great and strong. And 
England was not at all strong when he came to the 
crown. His father Henry III. and his grandfather 
John had lost in a very shameful way some of the 
finest provinces that the kings of England had 
formerly held in France. People abroad had begun 
to think that the English were a very weak people, 
not good for fighting at all. But about this time 
English trade was beginning to spread very much, 
and especially there was a great deal of trade with 
Gascony and Guienne, the provinces of France 
which were still Edward's. The French became 
very jealous of this, and soon the French sailors, 
especially those of Normandy, began to attack the 
English ships and plimder them. They did the 
most cruel things to the English sailors whom they 
caught ; once they flayed some of them alive ; 
another time they hung them up at their own 
mastheads, with dead dogs tied to them. 

36. Now had England been as strong then as 
she is now, Edward would never have allowed these 
things to go on for a day. But England was not 
strong then ; and Edward had his hands so full with 
Scotland and Wales, that above everything he wished 
to avoid a quarrel with France. When the English 



90 EDWARD I. 

sailors found that their king could do nothing for 
them, they thought they would take the matter 
into their own hands. They joined with some 
Dutch, Irish, and Gascon ships, and they fell upon 
a large French fleet which had been scouring the 
seas for English ships, and was now returning from 
the coast of Gascony, laden with booty. The French 
fleet had long red streamers flying from the masts, 
as a sign that they would give no quarter. There 
were only sixty English ships against two hundred 
French, but the English won the victory, and 
carried away no less than 180 French ships as 
prizes. After this the English were masters of the 
seas, and the French scarcely dared to show them- 
selves. 

War with France. 

37. The king of France, Philip IV., was naturally 
very angry at this, and very soon Edward was 
summoned before the French court of peers to 
answer for what had been done. Edward was the 
vassal of the king of France for the lands which he 
held in France, and therefore Philip wished to make 
out that he was a peer of France, bound to answer 
in the court of peers for any wrong done to his 
overlord. But in his own kingdom of England 
Edward was independent; and he did not like to 
admit that he was in any way bound to acknowledge 
PhiKp's authority over him. So he did not go in 
person to Paris, but he sent his brother Edmund to 
talk to the king of France, and to lay down wise 
plans for peace between the two countries. He pro- 



EDWARD I. 91 

posed to marry the French king's sister Margaret, 
and to settle the duchy of Guienne on her children, 
so that after her death it would have passed away from 
the English crown. 

38. This would have been a very good thing for 
France, and Philip pretended to accept this plan, but 
he only did it in order that he might play Edward a 
very mean trick. As a matter of form, and to do 
honour to PhiKp, the chief strongholds of Guienne 
were to be placed for a short time in his hands. 
But as soon as Philip had got them, he would not 
give them up ; on the contrary he quietly took pos- 
session of the whole of Guienne and Gascony, which 
were now defenceless. 

39. Edward was now driven to declare war with 
France-; and thus a war began which lasted off and 
on for five years. But it was not a war in which 
great things were done on either side, for Edward 
was never able to throw his whole strength into it, 
because of the struggles he had to go through in other 
quarters. These five years were the hardest years of 
Edward's life, because he had on his hands not only 
the war with France, but a rebellion in Wales and 
the conquest of Scotland. Besides aU this, he fell 
into trouble with his own people, about which I will 
speak later on. 

40. It is not much to be wondered at that 
Edward's temper should have grown very bad while 

^he had such difl5culties to struggle with. While he 
was hoping to invade France, a French fleet invaded 
England. Fifteen thousand Frenchmen landed at 
Dover ; they plundered the priory and killed one old 



92 EDWARD L 

monk, and burnt a great part of the town. At first 
the townsmen were in a great fright, but they soon 
got together and made a brave attack on the French. 
They killed five thousand of them, and drove the 
others back to their ships. There was great fear 
then in England that the French would come and 
conquer the whole country. Edward thought it was 
best to go to meet the danger, so he gathered an 
army, and went over to Flanders, to fight the king 
of France, who had invaded Flanders. 

m 

A Story of the Welsh Eebellion. 

41. The rebellion in Wales, which broke out while 
Edward was at war with France, and before he went 
to Flanders, was a very serious one, and Edward had 
to go to Wales himself to put it down. It happened 
that while he was at Conway he was separated by 
floods from the larger part of his army, and ran short 
of food, so that there was nothing to eat but bread, 
and nothing to drink but water mixed with honey. 
There was just a little wine, which was saved for the 
king, but he refused to drink it, saying that in a case 
of need like that all things should be in common, 
and that he would not have better food than any of 
his men, seeing that it was he who had brought them 
into this strait. As soon as the water went down, 
the rest of the army came up with provisions, and the 
Welsh were put to flight. 



EDWARD I. 93 

End of the French War. 

42. Before Edward crossed over to Flanders, he 
very nearly lost his life by an accident. He was at 
Winchelsea, which was then a port near the sea, 
where his ships w^ere assembled to carry his army 
over to Flanders. As he was riding along the ram- 
parts of Winchelsea, which were of earth, to view his 
fleet, he passed near a windmill, and the noise of the 
sails going round frightened his horse. Edward 
tried to drive him on, but the horse was so terrified 
that at last he sprang over the rampart. Everybody 
thought the king would be killed, and great was their 
wonder when a few minutes afterwards they saw him 
riding in at the city gate. The horse had slipped 
for about twelve feet down the slope of the rampart, 
which was then very muddy from late rains, but he 
had not fallen, and the king had stuck to his saddle, 
so they came safely to the bottom. 

43. Edward did not trust to armies alone in order 

to succeed in the French war ; he tried to make a 

great alliance against the king of France between 

himself and the king of Germany and nearly all the 

princes on the French border. In this way he was 

able at last to bring about a peace between England 

and France, the Peace of Chartres, in which Philip, 

king of France, promised to restore the provinces 

which he had stolen from England; and Edward 

married Philip's sister ilargaret, of whom it was said 

that there was more goodness and beauty in her little 

finger than in the fairest lady of romance. 



94 EDWAKD L 

The Conquest of ScotlaiLd. 

44. If Edward did some wrong things in the 
latter part of his reign, those difficult years were the 
years in which he showed most one kind of greatness 
which he possessed. For the great man is the man 
who sticks to the thing thathe has begun, and carries 
it through. In the midst of all the difficulties which 
he had to struggle with, Edward stuck to his plan of 
bringing all Britain together under one crown. The 
conquest of Wales was a possible thing, and Edward 
finished that ; the conquest of Scotland was a much 
harder thing, and he finished that too. But it was 
not possible for him to finish it in a lasting way, for 
England was not then strong enough herself to hold 
Scotland ; so as soon as he was dead, his work was all 
undone. 

46. Now I have told already how it had been de- 
cided by Edward and the Scotch parliament together 
that John Balliol should be king of Scotland. But 
the Scotch did not really like their king. He was a 
weak, stupid kind of man, and they did not trust him 
because they thought he was the king of England's 
man. Neither was Balliol very happy in his position, 
because Edward claimed a power over him which no 
king of England had ever had before. over a king of 
Scotland. At last the Scotch chose a council of 
twelve nobles to control Balliol in carrying on the 
government, and sent away all the Englishmen who 
were in his employ. Then Balliol felt that he must 
do something, so he got the Pope to let him off the 
oath of homage which he had made to Edward. For 



EDWARD I. 95 

men believed then that the Pope had power to allow 
people to break their promises, Balliol secretly 
made a treaty with the king of France, who was then 
at war with Edward. When Edward called the Scotch 
nobles to give him help in his war against* France, 
they refused. So Edward saw he would very soon 
have to fight for his claims over Scotland. The Scots 
too began to get ready for war, and they were the 
first to break the peace. They marched into Eng- 
land, and attacked Carlisle. 

Siege of Berwick. 

46. Edward did not stop to defend Carlisle, but 
inarched into Scotland and laid siege to Berwick, 
which was then the most important town of the 
Scotch border. The townsmen trusted in their 
strong castle, and made fun of Edward, singing songs 
at him from the walls. 

Let him pike, 

Let him dyke, 

Li scorn said they. 

But they soon had to change their tune ; the king 
caused hurdles to be thrown over the ditches, and 
then his army charged straight into the town, the 
king himself riding first on his war-horse. 

47. Then for the first time Edward was cruel ; 
he wished to make an example' of Berwick. . He 
allowed thousands of the citizens to be slain, both 
men and women ; he wished not to leave a Scot 
alive. Thirty Flemish merchants had shut them- 
selves up in their house of business, which was very 



96 EDWABD I. 

strongly built. It was set fire to by the English^ 
and they were all burnt alive. At last the priests 
and monks of the city came in procession to Edward, 
barefoot, and carrying their sacred relics ; they 
fell on their knees, and besought him to stop the 
slaughter. Edward burst into tears, and granted 
their prayer. He turned all the Scotch out of 
Berwick, and dug a deep ditch round the town to 
separate'it for ever from Scotland ; and he wished 
so much to get it finished, that he worked at it 
himself, wheeling a barrow of earth with his own 
hands. 

48. The English now made insulting rimes to 
sing against the Scotch : 

Scattered are the Scots, 
Huddled in their huts, 

Never do they thee ; [i.e. thme'] 
Right if I read 
They are tumbled into Tweed, 

That dwelt by the sea. 

The Battle of Dunbar. 

49. Meanwhile the Scotch army had been at- 
tacking Carlisle. They set fire to the houses out- 
side the walls, and a Scotch spy who had been shut 
up in a prison inside, managed to set fire to his 
prison, and thus to burn down a great part of the 
town. Notwithstanding this, the men and even the 
women of Carlisle defended their city bravely, 
showering stones and boiling water on the besiegers. 
The Scots, seeing they could do nothing, broke up 
the siege and harried the shire of Northumberland 



EDWARD I. 97 

with great cruelty. They spared neither age nor 
sex, they burnt villages^ churches, and monasteries, 
and it is even said that they burnt aKve two hun- 
dred little children in a grammar-school at Gorbridge. 
After this they withdrew across the Scottish border, 
and sat down in the castle of Dunbar. 

60. While Edward was still at Berwick, Balliol 
sent an embassy to him to reTiounce his hoTnage^ 
that is to say, that he would not any longer ac- 
knowledge Edward as his over-lord. ' Ah, the mad 
wretch!' cried Edward; ' has he done this folly ? If 
he will not come to us, we will go to him.' 

61. Edward moved on to Dunbar, where a great 
battle was fought, and the Scotch were utterly 
routed. The English pursued them for many miles, 
and made a great slaughter of them. The English 
were very savage against these Scots, because these 
were the same men who had done such cruelty in 
Northumberland ; and especially they thought they 
ought to be punished because * they had shown no 
more mercy to holy church than to a bam or an 
oven.' And they made songs about this battle of 
Dunbar, how 

Well did the foot-folk 

Who put the Scots in the poke 

And paid them their wages. 

62. This victory settled the fate of Scotland. 
King Edward now went on through the land, and 
everywhere the castles were yielded up to him. 
Balliol came and gave up himself and his kingdom 
to Edward. All the chief nobles of Scotland did 
homage to him. He was so merciful in his conquest 

ST. n. H 



98 EDWARD I. 

that the English wished he would punish more 
hardly the nobles who had done such cruelties in 
Northumberland. But Edward wished to govern 
Scotland mercifully, now he had conquered it. He 
was now king of all Great Britain. 

53. In the Abbey of Scone, near Perth, there 
was an old grey granite boulder on which all the 
kings of the Scotch had been crowned. It was said 
that wherever that stone was, there would be the rule 
of Scotland. So Edward carried it away to England, 
and placed it in Westminster Abbey ; and it is there 
now, under the chair where the kings of this island 
sit when they go to be crowned. He carried away 
also the crown jewels of Scotland. And songs were 
made about these things : — 

Their king's seat of Scone 
Is driven over down, 

To London led ; 
In town heard I tell 
Their jewels and their bell 

Be filched and fled. 

BrebeUion of Wallace. 

64. Scotland seemed to be quite conquered ; an 

English regent governed it for king Edward ; John 

Balliol was a prisoner in the Tower of London. 

Edward had gone to Flanders to fight against the 

king of France, when news came that the Scots had 

risen against the English government, under a new 

eader, William Wallace. Wallace was the younger 

>n of a Scotch knight. He had quarrelled when he 

as quite young with some of the English officials 



EDWAKD I. 99 

in his district, and had killed one of them. His 
sweetheart was put to death by the Sheriff of Clydes- 
dale, because she helped him to escape from justice. 
Wallace avenged his sweetheart by attacking the 
garrison of Lanark by night, and killing the sheriff. 
From that time he was an outlaw, living by his 
sword and his bow, but he was joined by other Scots 
who hated the English. They came to him in 
swarms. Wherever he could, he attacked the Eng- 
lish, and at last his party became so strong that they 
drove the English Chief-Justice out of Scotland. 
And as Wallace's army was largely made up of law- 
less men, it is not wonderful that they did many 
cruel things in this war. They slew all the English 
they could find, men or women ; and Wallace is said 
to have taken some English monks, tied their hands 
behind their backs, and made them jump into a 
river, laughing at them all the time. 

55. The English regent, Warenne, Earl of Surrey, 
went against Wallace with a large army, and came 
up to him near Stirling. But Wallace was a very 
clever general, and Warenne was a very poor one. 
Wallace had chosen his position well. He had the 
mountains behind him, and a river in front ; the 
only way to get at him was by a narrow bridge, or 
else by going round to a ford some way off. A 
Scotchman, who knew the country, begged Earl 
Warenne to go round by the ford, and not to cross 
the bridge. Messengers were sent to Wallace, asking 
him to return to the king's peace, but he answered, 
' Tell the English that we have not come here for 
peace, but to fight to avenge ourselves, and to set 

H 2 



100 EDWABD I. 

our country free. Let the English come on, they 
will find us ready to beard them ! ' 

56. Earl Warenne was not up till very late in 
the morning, and then, in spite of the advice which 
had been given, the English army tried to cross the 
river by the narrow bridge, which they could only 
pass by twos and threes. Before half of them had 
crossed over, the Scottish host fell upon them, and 
slew all those who had crossed. In vain did the 
cavalry try to charge ; the ground was too swampy 
for their horses. The rest of the army took to 
flight, and Earl Warenne never stopped till he 
reached Berwick. Hugh de Cressingham, the Eng- 
lish treasurer, was killed in the battle : the Scots 
hated him very much, and when they found his 
body they flayed off the skin, and it is said that 
Wallace made himself a sword-belt of it. 

The Battle of Falkirk. 

57. Thus Edward's conquest of Scotland was all 
undone. All the country now fell into Wallace's 
hands, and he even crossed the border into England, 
and for a month harried the northern counties with 
great fury. 

58. Edward was in Flanders when the news of 
these things came to him. He made a truce with 
the king of France, and by the spring of next year 
he was ready to lead his troops against Scotland. 
He marched unhindered through the country as far 
as Edinburgh, and was waiting near the Firth of 
Forth for the ships to arrive which were bringing 



EDWARD I. 101 

his army food, when he heard that Wallace and the 
Scots were encamped about six miles off, near Fal- 
kirk. It was then nearly evening, but Edward at 
once decided to go to attack the Scots, and made 
his army march on. They slept that night in an 
open field, the soldiers having only their shields for 
piUows. Towards morning a cry rang suddenly 
through the camp, and everyone rose and got ready 
for battle, thinking the Scots were upon them. But 
it was not so; an accident had happened to the 
king ; as he lay in the field like the other soldiers, 
beside his horse, the horse had trodden upon him 
and broken two of his ribs. This did not hinder 
him from mounting his horse and leading his troops 
forward to the battle. 

69. Wallace's army was smaller than that of 
Edward's, but he had drawn it up in a good position. 
Wallace was one of the first generals to understand 
the value of infa/rdry^ that is, of foot soldiers, in a 
battle. He had drawn them up now very close 
together in four hollow rings, and they stood * as it 
were a castle - walled with stone,' pointing their 
spears towards the enemy. He made a hedge of 
stakes and ropes in firont of them. Then he said, 
^ I have brought you to the ring, hop if you can ; ' a 
saying in those days, which meant ^ get out of the 
scrape as best you can.' But very few of them got 
out of that scrape. Bravely as they fought, they 
were overborne by the English archers, and at last 
they were surprised from behind by a body of Eng- 
lish led by a Scotch earl named Eobert Bruce. The 
cavalry then took to flight, and the footmen were 



102 £DWABD I. 

cut to pieces by the English. The Bishop of Durham, 
Anthony Beck, a very clever and active man, one of 
Edward's best councillors, was one of the first to 
attack the Scotch that day. He, indeed, wished his 
troop to wait for that of the king, but one of the 
knights called out to him, ' Don't teach us how to 
fight, bishop, but say mass, and leave the rest to ub ! ' 
80. When the battle of Falkirk was lost, Wallace 
was in despair. The great nobles of Scotland had 
never been very warm in his cause, because he was 
not one of themselves, but only a simple gentleman. 
It was the common people who had loved and trusted 
him, but they began to trust him less after he had 
lost this battle. So he left Uie country and fled to 
the king of France, 

Edward's ftaarrel with his own People. 

61. The second conquest of Scotland was a much 
more difficult business for Edward than the first, and 




took five campaigns instead of one. This year he 
was obliged to give up the thought of conquering 



EDWABD I. 103 

the HighlaDds, and had to leave Scotland soon after 
he had rebuilt Stirling Castle, which had been burnt 
by Wallace. The campaigns of the next four years 
had no better result. One reason that Edward was 
so slow in reconquering Scotland was that he was 
at strife with his own people. I must go back a 
little to tell how this quarrel began. 

62. \yTien the war with France first broke out, 
Edward was in great want of money to pay for ships 
and troops. His people were willing to help him, 
and gladly gave him all they could, but that was not 
enough, and Edward was driven by his need of money 
to do some imlawful things, such as seizing the wool 
of the merchants, and making them pay heavily to 
get it back, and seizing the treasures of th^ o^th^al^ 
And monasteries. His temper became so bad thai 
everybody was in fear of him, and the dean of St. 
Paul's actually died of firight in his pi'esence* These 
things, and others like them, made the people of 
England very much vexed with their king, and the 
nobles and clergy were quite as much vexed as the 
people. 

68. So things came to this point, that in 1297, 
when Edward asked his barons to go to Gascony, 
while he went to Flanders, to fight against the king 
of France, the barons, who did not care a bit about 
Gascony, refused to go unless he went with them. 
Edward lost his temper ; he swore a great oath, and 
said to Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, who was the 
head of the nobility, * Earl, you shall either go or 
hang ! ' Earl Soger replied with the same oath, * 
king, I will neither go nor hang.' Then the earls and 



104 EBWABD I. 

barons banded themselves together to prevent the 
king's oflScers from collecting money or seizing wool 
on their lands. 

64. Thus began a quarrel between Edward and 
the barons, which tied Edward's hands for a long 
time. At a meeting which Edward held in the 
same year, he acknowledged that he had taken his 
people's goods wrongfully, and he asked their 
pardon with tears ; but he told them he had done it 
to defend them from the French, who were thirsting^ 
for their blood. *And now,' he said, * I am going^ 
to risk my life on your behalf; ' for he was just about 
to sail for Flanders. But the barons would not be 
satisfied until Edward had made a solemn promise 
that he would keep the Great Charter of England^ 
which his grandfather John had signed, and would 
not take any more wool or put on any more taxes 
without the will of parliament. He also promised 
that he would put right the laws about the forests, 
which were very hard laws, and weighed very heavily 
on his subjects. 

65. If Edward had kept these promises all would 
have gone well. But I am sorry to say that it was 
a long time before he could be brought to fulfil these 
promises rightly. He was very wilful, and did 
not like to give up one of what he thought his 
rights. Above all, he disliked to have to give up 
any of his rights over the forests. He even wrote to 
the Pope, and got him to .send him a permission to 
break the promise which he made to his people. I 
am glad to say that he never used this permission 
but once, but it was a very wrong thing that he ever 
asked for it. And for a long time many of his 



EDWAKD I. 10& 

barons would not go with him to Scotland, because 
his promises about the forests had not been kept. 
As Edward had governed England better than any 
king who had sat on the throne for hundreds of 
years, it is a. pity that there is this one stain on hi& 
conduct to his people. 

The Fate of Wallace. 

66. In the year 1303 Wallace appeared again in 
Scotland; he surprised the English general near 
Roslin Abbey, and slew the greater part of his 
army. But now Edward had made peace with his 
own people, and had settled all his quarrels with the 
king of France. He advanced with a powerful 
army into Scotland. The Scotch burnt the bridge 
over the Forth, to prevent him crossing, but he 
crossed by a ford higher up, and marched up to the 
north of Scotland as far as Kinross, in Moray. Very 
few fortresses resisted him, and the Scotch nobles on 
all sides submitted to him. He was merciful to all, 
except to one, William Wallace. 

67. Edward looked upon Wallace as a rebel 
against himself: he could not regard him as a 
patriot who had fought for his country. Wallace 
was caught in Glasgow, and sent to London, where 
he was tried with all the forms of law, and sentenced 
to a cruel death as a traitor. His head was exposed 
on London Bridge. But his memory has ever been 
dear to Scottish hearts, as that of the man of the 
people, who strove to defend the people from an 
alien conqueror, in the day when the nobles and 
great men forsook the cause of their country. 



106 EDWAItD 1. 

The Drag-sticks, 

68. When Edward came back to England he 
found the land was plagued with bands of men who 
went about setting fire to houses at night, robbing 
people, and beating them. The worst was that these 
ruCBans, who were called Trail-bastons, or Drag- 
sticks, were hired by people who had a quarrel with 
any one, to set upon their enemy and beat him. The 
country gentlemen made use of these Drag-sticks 
when they wanted to seize the lands of some poorer 
neighbour, or to get goods from the merchants 
without paying for them. The nuisance had become 
so great, that Edward had to send judges through- 
out England specially to try and punish the Drag- 
sticks. 

The Bising of Aobert Bruce. 

69. At the very time when Edward was finishing 
the second conquest of Scotland, two men in Scot- 
land were making a solemn bond to help one 
another and be true to one another whatever might 
happen. These men were William Lambert, Bishop 
of St. Andrews, and Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick. 
Robert Bruce was the grandson of that Bruce who 
had been a rival for the crown of Scotland with John 
Balliol. His feither had been at one time on the 
side of Wallace, and then had helped the English 
to win the battle of Falkirk. Robert Bruce the 
younger was a bold and able man, and he had 
made up his mind to try to win the crown of 
Scotland. 



EDWARD I. 107 

70. Now that Balliol was turned out, there was 
no one who had nearly so good a claim to the Scotch 
crown as Robert Bruce, except another nobleman 
named John Comyn. Bruce tried to get Comyn to 
join him in a revolt against Edward, but Comyn 
would not. Bruce then appointed a meeting with 
Comyn in a church at Dumfries. There they soon 
came to angry words, and Bruce, saying to Comyn, 
' Thou liest ! ' drew his sword and stabbed him at the 
foot of the altar. Then he ran out of the church, 
jumped on his horse, and said to his servants, ^ I 
doubt I have slain Comyn ! ' * Do you doubt ? ' 
cried one of his men. ' I will make sure ; ' and he 
ran into the church. Finding Comyn leaning 
against the altar, he killed him outright. 

71p Bruce and his followers at once took pos- 
session of the castle of DumfrieSf The English 
judges and sheriffs were driven away, and numbers 
of the Scotch nobles came to the side of Bruce. 
They were more willing to join Bruce than they had 
been to join Wallace, because Bruce was a noble, and 
they did not look down upon him as they had done 
upon Wallace, who was a simple gentleman. Bruce 
saw that the best thing he could do was to get himself 
crowned king as quickly as possible; so this was 
done. The Countess of Buchan, whose femily had 
the right of placing the crown on the king's head, 
came to Scone and crowned him. Bruce said to his 
wife Mary, ^ Henceforth thou art Queen of 'Scotland, 
and I am King.' But she answered, * I fear we are 
only playing at king and queen, like children in 
their games.' 



108 EDWAKD I. 

Edward prepares to marcli against Bmee. 

72. The king and people of England were fall of 
anger when they heard of the murder of Comyn, 
Now it is right to be angry when a wicked deed i& 
done, but it is a dangerous thing to be angry with 
someone who has hurt us, for there is always the 
fear that we are more angry because we are hurt than 
because a wrong deed has been done. Perhaps king 
Edward would not have been so angry with Bruce 
for killing Comyn, and would not have thought him 
worthy of such dreadful punishment, if he had not 
stolen king Edward's cake, to wit, the kingdom of 
Scotland. Edward sent an army to Scotland at 
once, and prepared to follow himself. 

78. He was getting old then, and was in very 
bad health, worn out with all the toil of his Kfe. 
He called together the young noblemen and gentle- 
men of England, and made knights of 240 of them, 
at the same time with his son Edward, Prince of 
Wales. After the knighting there was a great 
banquet in Westminster Hall, and while the king 
sat at table with all the new knights, and the min- 
strels were singing songs about war and glory, two 
swans richly garnished were served up on the table. 
Then the king first of all vowed by these two swans 
that he would take vengeance for the contempt of 
God and of his Church which Eobert Bruce had 
shown in the murder of Comyn ; and that when he 
had done this he would never more bear arms 
against Christians, but would spend his last days in 
the Holy Land. Then his son Edward vowed that 



he would never epend two nights is the same place 
nntil lie had reached Scotland, to carry out his 
father's vow. All the other young knights took 
vows of the same kind. 




74. Edward was sent on in advance by Mb iather, 
■while he himself followed slowly, for he was not well 



110 EDWARD I. 

enougli to ride, and lie had to go in a carriage or in 
a litter. King Edward was taken ill at Lanercost, in 
Cumberland ; he could go no further, and remained 
there for the winter. His son went on to Scotland^ 
with the young knights who had vowed to revenge 
the death of John Comyn. They laid waste the 
country with the greatest cruelty, spared neither old 
men nor women, and burnt the villages and cottages 
without mercy. When this came to the ears of king 
Edward, he was much displeased, and most of all 
because it was the poor people who had suflfered all 
the punishment, the rich men having escaped by 
flight. He chid his son, and told him to be always 
merciful to the poor and the country people, who had 
done nothing except by command of their betters. 
Thus Edward, severe as he was to the nobles whom 
he thought rebels, was merciful to the poor even in 
his worst days. 

Bruce is defeated at Mefhven. 

76. Meanwhile the army which had been sent first 
into Scotland, under Aymer de Valence, went as far 
as Perth, and waited there for Bruce, who was going 
round the country, gathering troops and receiving 
homage. When Bruce and his army came up and 
oflfered battle to the English, Aymer refused, because 
it was Sunday. But in the evening he broke his 
word, and fell upon Bruce's army while they were 
resting in the wood of Methven. Many of them 
were unarmed. All of them wore linen shirts, by 
order of Bruce, in order that it might not be seen 



EDWARD I. Ill 

who had full armour and who had not ; for the army 
had been hastily gathered together, and was not well 
furnished. The English made a great slaughter of 
the Scotch. Eobert Bruce fought bravely, but his 
horses were three times killed imder him, and at last 
he had to flee for his life into the mountains. 

76. His power in Scotland seemed utterly broken 
by the battle of Methven. One by one his chief 
supporters were taken prisoners by the English, and 
were put to a cruel death as traitors and rebels against 
the king of England. His three brothers perished 
in this way. His queen, his daughter, and one of 
his sisters were carried prisoners into England. The 
Countess of Buchan, who had crowned him, was placed 
by Edward's orders in a wooden cage on the walls of 
the castle of Berwick, so that every one who passed 
by might see her and laugh at her. 

77. Bruce was now wandering among the moun- 
tains, living by hunting. He was everywhere pur- 
sued by the English, who even set bloodhounds on 
his track. He was forsaken by almost everybody, 
and at last he fled to the little isle of Eathlin in the 
north of Ireland. Yet Bruce was still unconquered* 
In the autumn of the same year (1306) he again 
appeared in Scotland, at the head of a small band of 
outlaws, and began to give the English trouble. The 
cruelties which Edward had used to his followers 
caused the Scots to rally roimd him. He defeated 
the Earl of Pembroke, and besieged the Earl of 
Grioucester in the castle of Ayr, but he was himself 
defeated by the English, and had again to hide in 
the moors and marshes. 



112 EDWARD I. 



Beafh of Edward I. 



78. Edward had lain all the winter in the abbey 
of Lanercost, sick and suflfering. He sent word 
throughout England, summoning his forces to meet 
liim at Carlisle within three weeks after Midsummer 
Day. He began to move on towards Scotland, but he 
was taken very ill, and could only go on in very short 
stages. He tried to ride on horseback, but he could 
not do more than six miles in four days. On July 6, 
1307, he reached the little village of Burgh-on-Sands, 
and there the next morning he died. 

79. The death of Edward put a stop to the con- 
quest of Scotland. His son, the weak pleasure-loving 
Edward II., could not even hold what his father had 
won. He was utterly defeated by Bruce in the great 
battle of Bannockbum. 

80. The sad result of Edward's wars with Scotland 
was that the Scotch began to think themselves a 
different nation from the English, and a bitter hatred 
grew up between the people of the two kingdoms. 
Now the Scotch who live in the Highlands, and speak 
Gaelic, are indeed a different race to the English ; 
but the Lowland Scotch, who speak EngUsh, are as 
EngUsh as ourselves, and it is sad that they ever 
became estranged from us. Let us be thankful that 
we live in days when England and Scotland ar« truly 
one, and when both can look back with pride to the 
great king who, by building up the greatness of 
England, worked for the greatness of the whole 
island-kingdom. 



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